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References 1. L. Lebowitz: Physics Today 46, 32 (1993); ‘Microscopic Reversibility and Macroscopic Behavior: Physical Explanations and Mathematical Derivations’. In: 25 Years of Non-Equilibrium Statistical Mechanics, Proceedings of the Sitges Conference in Barcelona, Spain, 1994, Lecture Notes in Physics, ed. J. Brey, J. M. Rub´ı, M. San Miguel (Springer, Heidelberg 1995). gov and in the Texas Mathematical Physics Archives. 2. J. ’. In: The Flight from Science and Reason, Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 775, ed.

W. J. M. Rankine: “Sur la n´ecessit´e de vulgariser la seconde loi de la thermodynamique”, Ann. Chim. (4) 12, 258-266 (1867) 14. L. Boltzmann: “Theorie der W¨ arme”, Fortschritte der Physik 26, 441-504 (1870) ¨ 15. L. Boltzmann: “Uber die mechanische Bedeutung des zweiten Hauptsatzes der W¨ armetheorie”, Wien. Ber. 53, 195-220 (1866) ¨ 16. R. Clausius: “Uber Zur¨ uckf¨ uhrung des zweiten Hauptsatzes der mechanischen W¨ armetheorie auf allgemeine mechanische Prinzipien”, Pogg. Ann. 142, 433-461 (1871).

If we continue to ask such questions, we come to the conclusion that the cause of low entropy states on earth, the source in effect of negative entropy, is our (very low entropy) sun, whose high energy photons are absorbed by the earth, which converts them to a great many low energy photons (having together much larger entropy), permitting entropy-decreasing processes to occur on our planet without violation of overall entropy non-decrease. And if we push further we eventually arrive at a cosmological low entropy state, in the distant past, for the universe as a whole.

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