By José A. Gutierrez, Brian S.R. Armstrong
This publication addresses the matter of size errors linked to picking the positioning of landmarks in pictures. The least attainable photogrammetric uncertainty in a given state of affairs is decided utilizing the Cram?r–Rao decrease sure (CRLB). The monograph presents the reader with: the main entire remedy thus far of precision landmark position and the engineering features of picture seize and processing; targeted theoretical therapy of the CRLB, and extra.
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Extra resources for Precision Landmark Location for Machine Vision and Photogrammetry: Finding and Achieving the Maximum Possible Accuracy
05 pixels. 80 The nonzero values of the ﬁrst difference show that there is a signal with which to detect the change of location of the landmark. 1 and computed with the tools described in Chapter 6. 2, the data do not contain any indication of a small shift in the landmark location. These ﬁgures show an oversimpliﬁcation, because actual imagers have ﬁnite sensitive area—in most cases greater than 12% ﬁll factor—and actual illuminance distributions have ﬁnite transition regions. • Because diffraction gives a smooth transition from background to landmark illuminance levels, the derivative of the data with respect to the landmark location is mathematically well posed.
Tian and Huhns (1986) were the ﬁrst to relate the 40 2 Physics of Digital Image Formation number of bits per pixel to landmark location uncertainty. Nielsen et al. (1984) and Bruckstein (1987) have studied intensity quantization using a statistical framework independent of landmark geometry. 2 Spatial and Intensity Quantization and Locales Havelock (1989, 1991) has developed a general analytic framework for landmark location uncertainty based on the locales introduced by spatial and intensity quantization.
3 Optics System The optical system of the camera forms the ﬂux function of the scene on the imager sensor. Optical phenomena such as diffraction and defocus inﬂuence the uncertainty of landmark location. Diffraction Diffraction is the phenomenon that occurs when light deviates from straightline propagation in a way that cannot be interpreted as reﬂection or refraction. Diffraction arises when light waves are partially blocked by obstacles (Hecht and Zajac 1979). Optical devices, such as cameras, collect a limited portion of the incident light wavefront from the scene; this inevitably introduces diffraction (Sears 1979), which is perceived as smoothing of the image.