Download Political Theory: An Encyclopedia of Contemporary and by Scott John Hammond PDF

By Scott John Hammond

Liberty. Justice. Nature. legislations. First formulated millennia in the past through the founding philosophers of the Western culture, those uncomplicated suggestions of human idea stay crucial to our notion of ourselves, our position on the planet, and our relations with others-that is, our politics. Readers encountering such large political options, their useful expressions in political hobbies and structures of presidency, the information of influential historical and smooth political thinkers—or easily conventional or unexpected catchphrases for which they want a succinct but informative explanation—will welcome this obtainable encyclopedic guide.

The significant political strategies, issues, concerns, activities, teams, and colleges that experience built through the years and formed our sleek international seem the following in all their variety, besides biographical entries and articles at the critical works of political theorists from Plato to John Rawls. extra, severe scholars and browsers alike will take pleasure in the various entries on wide-spread quotations and political catchphrases, from the banality of evil and massive Brother to the battle of all opposed to all.

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Extra info for Political Theory: An Encyclopedia of Contemporary and Classic Terms

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Most 22 ANARCHISM modern variations of anarchism are included within one of these two main groups, that is, the libertarian or the communitarian. It should be noted that such a division is not the only, or even the best, method for categorizing anarchist thought. Andrew Vincent adeptly identifies five types of anarchism: individualist, collectivist, communist, mutualist, and anarcho syndicalist. Additionally, Vincent identifies nihilist anarchism, eco anarchism, and feminist anarchism as specific subcategories but does not regard them as wholly separate from the five principal types mentioned above.

It is in the contract that we find the essential relationship within all lev els of community; additionally, Althusius understands that contracts are formed between groups as well. Family, corporations (voluntary associations such as guilds, collegia), local politi cal institutions, and communities, provinces, and states are all dependent on a contract understanding of mutual rights and obligations. Indeed, for Althusius, the most encompassing political association (the state) is in reality more of a contract between lesser groups than it is between individual members (as in Hobbes and Locke).

All men and women are created equal The Declaration of Rights and Sentiments was the product of an 1848 convention organized by Lucretia Mott and Elizabeth Cady Stanton advocating women’s rights. The preamble of this document recapitulates the Declaration of Independence almost verbatim, and the phrase ‘‘we hold these truths to be self evident, that all men and women are created equal’’ drew direct attention to the early women’s move ment and its expressed desire to advance equal ity between the sexes.

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