By Leo Hickey
Politeness as practised throughout 22 ecu societies, firmly set inside of severe debates constructed because the Eighties, is the following provided in methods concerning concrete events within which language-users engage with each other to accomplish their pursuits. components lined contain forms of politeness, sorts of tackle, negotiation and ''small-talk'' in a variety of contexts.
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Extra resources for Politeness In Europe
6 per transaction, a considerable number given the brevity of the encounters. The ‘thank yous’ appear, as we have seen, in the closing sequence (after a wish or as a closure device). They occur also within the encounter, after receiving the product and possibly the change (C) and after being paid (B). It is worth emphasising that in this context not only are the ‘thank yous’ numerous but also reciprocated: in France, shopkeeper/customer relationships are seen as ones of mutual indebtedness15 which is far from universal.
1) audio-taped open role-play interactions between English and German speakers followed by retrospectively-focussed introspections (200) (2) author’s own field-notes of naturally occurring ‘critical incidents’ (clashes of politeness) in English–German interactions (49), (3) self-reflective diary-type records of naturally occurring critical incidents given to the author by colleagues, students, friends, where differences in politeness norms in German–English interactions were involved (81), (4) audio-taped narrative interviews in which English native speakers describe critical incidents they experienced in a German cultural context (58) and (5) audio-taped authentic interactions (+/- participant observation) of different speech events (23).
See, for example, the work of the CCSARP (Cross-Cultural Speech Act Research Project) on requests and apologies in different languages and societies (BlumKulka et al. 1989), collected via discourse completion tests. The existence of institutions such as the Académie Française (founded in 1634) effectively illustrates the importance the French place on the linguistic norm. Our research team, GRIC (Groupe de Recherche sur les Interactions Communicatives, CNRS-Université Lyon 2 now ICAR), has been working on this type of exchange for several years now and has, at its disposal, considerable data on the subject.