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By Raymond Martin, John Barnes

Own identification brings jointly crucial readings on own id thought. Brings jointly thirteen of crucial readings on own id idea. incorporates a specific introductory historic essay, tracing the origins of private id idea. gains essays through David Lewis, Bernard Williams, Derek Parfit, and Robert Nozick. Describes the progressive shift from the "internal kinfolk" view of non-public id to the "external kinfolk" view. encompasses a dialogue at the debatable subject of animalism. jointly deals a entire advent to the sector.

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As simple, immaterial substances, souls are not part of the natural w o r l d . Whatever exists or obtains, but not as part of the natural w o r l d , is inherently mysterious. Other peoples' souls cannot be observed either directly or indirectly. A n d since only the activities, and not the substance, of the soul are open to empirical investigation, there is no w a y to detect 38 Raymond Martin and John Barresi by observing an i n d i v i d u a l whether his soul remains the same. Hence, on the soul view, personal identity is inherently mysterious.

For the most part, this is how Locke has been interpreted ever since the publication of the second edition of the Essay, particularly by his eighteenth-century critics. As far as it goes, the simple memory-interpretation of Locke's account of personal identity over time is almost, but not quite, correct. Locke made some allowances for forgetfulness. More importantly, he may not have been trying, in the first place, to present a non-circular analysis of personal identity over time. Even aside from such qualifications, however, the simple memory-interpretation of Locke is at best radically incomplete.

The decisive attack upon Aristotelian natural philosophy w o u l d come from Galileo and other natural philosophers in the seventeenth century. R e n é Descartes (1596-1650) In the early seventeenth century, Descartes freed the Platonic view of the self from its Aristotelian accretions, and in so doing inadvertently exposed its scientific theoretical irrelevance, a consequence that w o u l d not become apparent to most philosophers until the end of the eighteenth century. In Descartes's view, everything in the physical w o r l d , including the bodies of humans, is composed of matter in various configurations, w h i c h is governed by laws of motion that have remained unchanged since the origin of the universe.

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