Download Non-equilibrium thermodynamics by S. R. De Groot, P. Mazur, Physics PDF

By S. R. De Groot, P. Mazur, Physics

Vintage monograph treats irreversible approaches and phenomena of thermodynamics: non-equilibrium thermodynamics. Covers statistical foundations and functions with chapters on fluctuation thought, idea of stochastic tactics, kinetic concept of gases, extra.

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7 Historical Aspect: from the Ceramics of Antiquity to Nanotechnologies 33 of the thermometer, with which Galileo is credited as he invented the air thermometer in 1592. The grand duke of Tuscany Ferdinand II probably made the first operating thermometer, the alcohol thermometer, in 1647; Fahrenheit developed the mercury thermometer between 1708 and 1724. Scientists such as Bacon, Descartes, Galileo, and Boyle believed that heat and its peculiar motions originated in a change of state like melting.

The gelation transition or sol–gel transition (Sect. 3) is induced by establishment of links between polymer chains in solution (and between solution and polymer): a three-dimensional network is formed from a polymer solution. Gelation 38 2 Dynamics of Phase Transitions is a dynamic phenomenon whose kinetics is a function of the kinetics of establishment of these links. In the particular case of gelatin, the sol–gel transition is itself triggered by a change in the conformation of the macromolecular chains in the gelatin: they undergo a helix–coil transition which has its own dynamics.

The Chinese were undoubtedly the first to study magnetism and the long-distance action of magnets. In Europe, Peregrinus of Maricourt (1269) and W. Gilbert (1600) treated the applications of magnets and developed the first theories of magnetism. A scientific approach to materials and phase transition problems was only possible when there was a clear concept of the notion of temperature, in fact, only since the 17th century. 7 Historical Aspect: from the Ceramics of Antiquity to Nanotechnologies 33 of the thermometer, with which Galileo is credited as he invented the air thermometer in 1592.

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