By Richard D. Sullivan
During the 1st century BC, the close to and heart effortless observed an exceptional transition from the Seleucid and Ptolemaic Empires, in terms of the short Pontic and Armenian Empires, to the successful Parthian and Roman Empires. Richard D. Sullivan bargains a consultant to the primary function of royalty in this interval. He presents, via narrative and citations, a context for the widespread references to jap kings and queens by means of Caesar, Cicero, Strabo, Josephus, Tacitus, Appian, Dio, and others. He additionally discusses similar inscriptions, cash, and papyri.
Sullivan specializes in the body of workers of the various dynasties which principles the close to and heart East, from Thrace via Asia Minor and the Levant to Egypt, then eastward to Armenia, Mesopotamia, and Parthia. He stories such recognized figures as Mithradates Eupator, Cleopatra, and Herod the good in addition to others now imprecise. To ?locate? them thoroughly, he presents a story historical past of every dynasty and attracts them jointly in a coherent account of jap royal governance and its lodgings with Rome and Parthia.
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Extra info for Near Eastern Royalty and Rome, 100-30 BC
The Hellenistic Background Thousands of years before the period examined in this book, the lands discussed here had already been settled by civilized peoples, as their distant descendants were fully aware. The invention of writing probably occurred here during the fourth millennium, in Mesopotamia, and soon after, in Egypt. The cities that arose were among the earliest anywhere. The ancient empires of the Sumerians, Babylonians, and Egyptians set a high standard for their successors, which the Assyrians and then the Persians tried to meet.
In this book the arrangement is both chronological and geographical, since the themes pursued fall naturally into two periods, both clearly reflected in regional dynastic politics. Detail is provided as appropriate to the dynasty under discussion, with consequent minor repetition for clarity. A progressive account of the kingdoms' positions emerges as examination of individual dynasties proceeds. The goal is full depiction of each kingdom by the end of Part II, with a treatment of its relation to its neighbours as well as to Rome and Parthia.
Some previous religions survived intact. The kingdoms of Pontus and Cappadocia practised Mazdaism, and Commagene featured both Ahura-mazda and Mithraism in its syncretistic pantheon. Cults from very early times were revived, such as that of the gods of Uruk in Mesopotamia. Zoroastrianism remained strong among the Parthian successors of the Achaemenids. ' A Sumerian or Akkadian term, often abbreviated, might be written down even when the Hittite or Greek equivalent was to be pronounced. ' but say 'and so forth' rather than et cetera.