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By M. I. Kaganov V. M. Tsukernik

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33)) whose projections onto a chosen axis are p ~ g r n ~ , where m , takes on one of the following values: -J, -J 1, . 34). 9. Structure of Atoms All atoms, with the exception of the simplest of them, the Ilydrogen atom, contain more than one electron. g. atoms of transition elements) are complex multiparticle systems. I t is impossible to extract exact information on the motion of a system consisting of a large number of particles. Even in classical mechanics the exact solution is obtainable only for the problem of motion of two bodies.

Is described by interchangir~gthe arguments of the function Y (1, 2): \if (I, 2) + Y (2, 1) This operation must leave the state of the system unaltered. But this mealls that, as a result of interchanging, the wave function can only acquire a constant multiplier (see p. 42). Let 11s denote i t by the letter a. Tliei~ Yr (2, 1) ==a Y (1, 2). Having performed the interchanging twice, that is, having returned to the original situation, we find that a2 = 1, and hence, that either a = 1 or a - -1. The value of the factor a is determined not by the state of the system but by the sort of particles of which it is composed.

In order to clarify the magnetic properties of materials, we can visualize the paramagnetic molecules as microscopic needles, that is, tiny magnets that can be orient1 wavs. ed in sDace in 2 J A n ciisemble of particlis whose behavior depends only on the directions of their magnetic moments is called the gas of magnetic needles. 2. Magnetic Field Aligns Magnetic Moments 101 terials a t high temperatures. The word "gas" only underlines the fact that the interaction between magnetic moments is neglected.

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