By Desmond Gregory
This can be the 1st booklet in English dedicated to the background of Italy as a complete below the guideline of Napoleon Bonaparte. Drawing principally on published basic assets and the massive variety of secondary works which were written in French and Italian, it seeks to provide a balanced precis of conclusions reached via historians. Napoleon's Italy addresses the resource of Napoleon's persisted curiosity in Italy, exploring not just his obvious intentions with reference to the way forward for that state however the influence of fifteen years of Napoleonic rule. This publication examines the influence of his endured curiosity in Italy at the country's economic system in its a number of and various areas; on its felony, judicial, and administrative structures; and on Napoleon's use of Italy's conscripted armies. It assesses the measure of aid and hostility his rule got, in addition to the character of the resistance to it. eventually, this ebook seeks to compute what kind of legacy Napoleon's rule has left at the back of in Italy. Desmond Gregory has released broadly, together with 8 educational heritage books.
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Extra info for Napoleon's Italy: Desmond Gregory
Incited by their priests, they marched on Genoa to the battle cry of ‘‘Viva Maria’’ and were only halted by the archbishop, who mediated at the government’s request. The terms agreed were that the Church should remain inviolate, Church property should be respected and the rebels granted unconditional pardon. Thus it was that the rebellion ended, though in the mountains resistance continued until French troops put an end to it. Napoleon praised the action of the archbishop, advised that the clergy be reconciled and told Faipoult, the Directory’s agent, that it was vital for military reasons to keep the areas in rear of his army paciﬁed and undisturbed.
By the treaty of Lune´ville in February 1801, Austria renounced the Habsburg claim to the Grand Duchy of Tuscany, while by a parallel treaty with Spain, signed at Aranjuez, also in February, the Duke of Parma (a Spanish Bourbon) renounced his duchy in favor of France, in return for his son Ludovico being given the throne of Tuscany, with the title of King of Etruria, while Spain handed over Elba to France. On the Duke’s death in October 1802, the French occupied the duchy. At the Congress of Lyon (mentioned later in this chapter), Napoleon promised the Italian Republic, which was to replace the Cisalpine, he would add Parma to its dominions, but in the event he decided to keep it, and in 1805 incorporated it as an integral part of the empire of France.
Corfu, lost to Russia in 1799 but recovered by France in 1807, he saw as the key to the Adriatic, and only the Italian ports of Venice, Ancona and Brindisi could ensure Corfu was kept supplied. Even after the Russian disaster, Napoleon announced he was determined not to cut back on the armaments of Venice; while in 1813, when defeated at Leipzig, and with all Germany lost to him, he told Melzi that ‘‘whatever happens, the kingdom [of Italy] can count on me not to abandon it . . ’’70 Napoleon’s methods for shaping Italy changed with the growth of his ambitions and with the progress of the wars.