By Avner Giladi
This publication reconstructs the position of midwives in medieval to early sleek Islamic background via a cautious interpreting of a variety of classical and medieval Arabic resources. the writer casts the midwife's social prestige in premodern Islam as a privileged place from which she may mediate among male authority in patriarchal society and feminine reproductive strength in the kinfolk. This learn additionally takes a broader old view of midwifery within the heart East through interpreting the tensions among realized drugs (male) and well known, medico-religious practices (female) from early Islam into the Ottoman interval and addressing the war of words among conventional midwifery and Western obstetrics within the first half the 19th century.
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Extra resources for Muslim Midwives: The Craft of Birthing in the Premodern Middle East
Schacht, “Umm al-Walad,” EI2, vol. X, 857–9. A saying attributed to the Prophet Muh ̣ammad reduces women’s roles to four: bearing children, giving birth, breast-feeding and treating their (husbands’) children mercifully: Ḥāmilāt, wālidāt, murd ̣i‛āt, raḥīmāt bi-awlādihinna. Al-Makkī, Qūt alqulūb, vol. II, 515. 95 96 Trans. Arberry. Trans. Arberry. Trans. Arberry. On the economic duties children have with regard to their parents see, for instance, Qurʾān 2:180; 4:11. “God made [both] parents the reason for [God’s] servants to come into existence”: Abū al-Fidāʾ Ismāʿīl Ibn Kathīr, Tafsīr al-qurʾān al-ʿaz ̣īm (Beirut: Dār al Maʿrifa, 2004), commentary on 4:36.
V, 48 (bāb tazwīj al-nabiyy sallā ̣ Allāh ‘alayhi wa-sallama Khadīja wa-fad ̣luhā rad ̣iya Allāh ‘anhā). See Meir J. Kister, “The sons of Khadīja,” Jerusalem Studies in Arabic and Islam 16 (1993), 59–95, especially 69ff. For examples of h ̣adīth reports on this theme see Muh ̣ammad b. Mah ̣mūd al-Iskandarī, Masā’il fī al-zawāj wa-al-ḥaml wa-al-wilāda (Beirut: Dār Ibn Ḥazm, 2002), 108–10. Islamic views on birth and motherhood 31 Paradise,58 thus encouraging women to bear children in spite of the risk to their lives.
She shall remain in a state of blood puriﬁcation for thirty-three days: she shall not touch any consecrated thing, nor enter the sanctuary until her period of puriﬁcation is completed. ” Trans. JPS Tanakh. Cf. Hennie J. Marsman, Women in Ugarit and Israel: Their Social and Religious Position in the Context of the Ancient Near East (Leiden and Boston, MA: Brill, 2003), 201, 231–4, 242. 22 Islamic views on birth and motherhood sharīʿa,20 but without making any distinction with regard to the sex of the newborn child.