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A synthesis of thermodynamics and utilized actual chemistry, this quantity stresses the significance and comfort of utilizing generalized easy methods to resolve chemical engineering difficulties.

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60) holds for mechanical mixtures and ideal solutions. The precondition for its validity is that by the process of mixing no or only very little strain is introduced into the solution and that any chemical interaction effects between the components plays a minor role. Example: Consider an olivine single crystal consisting of 92 mole percent forsterite and 8 mole percent fayalite. Its mass is 5 g. What is the volume of the crystal if an ideal mixing between forsterite and fayalite is assumed? To answer this question, the numbers of moles and the molar volumes of the two mixing components must be known.

7) only one root is real. The remaining two are complex. At these temperatures only one phase, a so called supercritical fluid, exists. For T < Tc all three roots are real. Two of them, the smallest and the largest one, represent the volumes of liquid and gas, respectively. Hence, at temperatures T < Tc a two-phase field with coexisting gas and liquid exists. Its boundaries are given by the inflection points on the isotherms. The two-phase field ends at the critical point, which is characterized by the critical temperature, Tc, critical pressure, Pc, and critical volume Vc.

01V FeS . sph po V ZnS and V FeS are the molar volumes of pure sphalerite and pure pyrrhotite, respectively. Sphalerite is cubic with the sphalerite-type structure, while pyrrhotite is sph hexagonal and posses the NiAs-type structure. 658 cm 3 is obtained. If this mixture is annealed at 700°C for 2 days, a homogeneous (Zn,Fe)S single phase solid solution forms. In the solution zinc is partially replaced by ferrous iron, but the crystal structure of sphalerite persists. In this case, the total volume of the solution can not be calculated simply by multiplying the molar volumes of pure sphalerite and pyrrhotite with their respective numbers of moles and summing up the products.