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By Arthur M. Eckstein

This ground-breaking research is the 1st to hire glossy diplomacy conception to put Roman militarism and enlargement of energy in the broader Mediterranean context of interstate anarchy. Arthur M. Eckstein demanding situations claims that Rome was once an incredibly warlike and competitive state—not in basic terms in sleek yet in historical terms—by arguing that severe militarism and aggressiveness have been universal between all Mediterranean polities from ca 750 B.C. onwards.

In his wide-ranging and masterful narrative, Eckstein explains that overseas politics within the old Mediterranean international was once, in political technological know-how phrases, a multipolar anarchy: foreign legislations was once minimum, and states struggled desperately for strength and survival via battle. ultimately, one nation, the Republic of Rome, controlled to create predominance and a type of peace. Rome used to be definitely a militarized and competitive country, however it used to be winning no longer since it was once extraordinary in its ruthlessness, Eckstein convincingly argues; really, it used to be profitable as a result of its extraordinary skill to control a wide community of overseas allies, and to assimilate a variety of foreigners in the polity itself. This e-book exhibits how those features, in flip, gave Rome incomparably huge assets for the awful fight of states fostered through the Mediterranean anarchy—and accordingly they have been key to Rome's unheard of success.

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The centrality of self-preservation in state decision making in an anarchic environment: Aron 1973: 64–65 and 130; Waltz 1988: 616; Sheehan 1996: 8. The primitiveness of ancient decision-making procedures in foreign affairs: Astin 1968; Eckstein 1987a: esp. xvii–xx. 9 A second corollary of an international system that is not merely an anarchy but inevitably a militarized anarchy is that for understanding the expansionistic conduct of states within such a system it is a mistake to focus solely on the internal political, economic, social, or cultural structure of any one state.

In this sense, examination of the characteristics of the anarchic structure of interstate relations in antiquity, and of the responses of states to it, imposes an important control on explanations drawn from the unit level. The method does not obviate the search for unit-level variables that help explain international outcomes. But it suggests that those unit-level variables may have more to do with capabilities than with motives—for the motives of all states are similar, and arise primarily from the rigors of a hazardous environment.

Sterling 1974: 336. 15. Waltz 1979: 100–101; cf. 97. 16 Realist Paradigms of Interstate Behavior ing principle is anarchy, states seek survival through competitive self-help strategies, and are functionally similar in their rivalrous self-seeking; the element that varies is the distribution of capabilities (power) across the units. One may investigate the causes of the increase or decrease in power that gives certain units more advantage or less in the competition for survival, but the severity of competition is inherent in anarchy.

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