By Embleton Gerry
Medieval army gown Recreated in color pictures
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Extra resources for Medieval Military Costume Recreated in Colour Photographs
As the manifestation of educated thought processes, literacy was a possibility for only a privileged few. The kings of England were among them, since they were educated in Latin from Henry I forward. 71 But these examples are exceptions. For others in society, Latin was learned at home or church by ear, and only remotely from texts. Among the peasant class, learning Latin proceeded obviously at a snail’s pace. An educated litteratus from the peasants is nearly a medieval miracle, and the biography of Robert Grosseteste is a case in point—if in fact he was of peasant origins.
19. 3 The Individual That Ockham stressed the priority of evident knowledge is not a particularly unusual move in the history of medieval philosophy. But he was an innovator with this topic insofar as he varied considerably the means by which knowledge might be validated. ) which he regarded as merely convenient ways of describing permanent things. And yet Ockham’s arguments are often directly opposed to Aristotle, particularly to the scholastic interpretations of his works. ” For Aquinas this principle means that the proper objects of knowledge are intelligible ideas (or species); the mind can know directly only universals.
18, 24, 40, 54, 58, 76. 46 Stock, The Implications of Literacy, pp. 4, 6, 42–59. , pp. 44, 90–92, and passim. ORAL AND WRITTEN LANGUAGE 19 inevitable conflicts with the community outside of the text and the monastery walls. But while differences between customs of literacy and orality were bound to be changed by acculturation, this process was not a dramatic standoff between a hostile society and a community committed to pondering documents and living according to them. For oral habits prevailed within the community itself through the disciplines of conducting ritual or discussion without the physical presence of texts, as well as through the vocalized reading of texts in manuscript production.