By Paula Richman
While such a lot students proceed to depend upon Valmiki's Sanskrit Ramayana because the authoritative model of the story, the participants to this quantity don't. Their essays display the multivocal nature of the Ramayana by way of highlighting its diversifications in keeping with ancient interval, political context, nearby literary culture, non secular association, meant viewers, and style. Socially marginal teams in Indian society—Telugu ladies, for instance, or Untouchables from Madhya Pradesh—have recast the Rama tale to mirror their very own perspectives of the area, whereas in different arms the epic has turn into the root for teachings approximately religious liberation or the call for for political separatism. Historians of faith, students of South Asia, folklorists, cultural anthropologists—all will locate right here clean views in this tale.
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Additional resources for Many Ramayanas: The Diversity of a Narrative Tradition in South Asia
30 Through pollen-dripping groves, clumps of champak, lotus pools, water places with new sands, flowering fields cross-fenced with creepers, like a life filling and emptying a variety of bodies, the river flows on. 20 31 This passage is unique to Kampan; it is not found in Valmiki. It describes the waters as they are gathered by clouds from the seas and come down in rain and flow as floods of the Sarayu river down to Ayodhya, the capital of Rama's kingdom. Through it, Kampan introduces all his themes and emphases, even his characters, his concern with fertility themes (implicit in Valmiki), the whole dynasty of Rama's ancestors, and his vision of bhakti through the Ramayana.
3. Camille Bulcke, Ramkatha: Utpatti aur Vikas (The Rama story: Origin and development; Prayag: Hindi Parisad Prakasan, 1950; in Hindi). When I mentioned Bulcke's count of three hundred Ramayanas to a Kannada scholar, he said that he had recently counted over a thousand in Kannada alone; a Telugu scholar also mentioned a thousand in Telugu. Both counts included Rama stories in various genres. So the title of this paper is not to be taken literally. 2011 22:03:24] cover 4. : Cornell University Press, 1978).
These include notions of the king as a cakkavatti, as an Indra, as a bodhisatta, and (though in proper Theravada fashion this always remained ambiguous) as a Buddha. When Rama I installed the Emerald Buddha in his new royal temple in Bangkok, the image became the palladium of his dynasty and kingdom, the cultic activities associated with it were regularly performed, and all the earlier associations with Buddhist notions of royal power and authority were retained. 29 Along the galleries surrounding the central altar of the royal temple, Rama I commissioned the painting of a set of murals that depicted episodes from the Ramakien.