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Distribution of power resources. The actual level is the score for 1993. The difference between the two values is known as the residual. Japan and South Korea appear to have obtained the levels of democracy that were predicted, while Malaysia, Mongolia, and the Philippines have higher levels of democracy than expected and Brunei, China, and Taiwan have lower scores than were expected. These varied results have several implications. First, the discrepancy between the actual and the predicted values may mean that something other than the distribution of power resources accounts for the level of democracy (see Chapter 3).

Qxd 15/2/08 15:41 Page 20 WHY, HOW, AND PROBLEMS OF COMPARISON revolutionary movements are best understood by focusing on the preferences and actions of individual peasants (a micro-level analysis). Support for this assertion comes from his intense study of peasant activity in Vietnam. In contrast to Popkin, Jeffrey Paige (1975) in Agrarian Revolution, demonstrates that revolutions are most likely in countries with a particular structural combination of owners and cultivators. This macro-level analysis is carried out through comparing many countries at once, and then verifying the findings in the three countries of Vietnam, Angola, and Peru (see Chapter 2).

Qxd 15/2/08 15:41 Page 14 WHY, HOW, AND PROBLEMS OF COMPARISON Darwin soon discovered a pattern in what he was observing for which an alternative explanation was possible. The theory of evolution, buttressed later by the theory of natural selection, emerged as the new explanation for the variety of species found in the natural world. ). Neither scientist had actually seen evolution or gravity but merely observed its effects. In this way, evolution and gravity are mental constructs, whose repeated empirical verification has given them a lawlike status.

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