By I. Randolph Daniel
This provocative reanalysis of 1 of the main recognized Early Archaic archaeological websites within the southeastern usa presents a brand new version for realizing prehistoric cost styles.
Since the early Nineteen Seventies, southeastern archaeologists have targeted their consciousness on selecting the functionality of prehistoric websites and settlement
practices throughout the Early Archaic interval (ca. 9,000-10,500 B.P.). The Hardaway web site within the North Carolina Piedmont, probably the most important
archaeological websites in japanese North the USA, has no longer but figured particularly during this learn. Daniel's reanalysis of the Hardaway artifacts
offers a vast variety of evidence—including stone instrument morphology, intrasite distributions of artifacts, and neighborhood distributions of stone
uncooked fabric types—that means that Hardaway performed a different position in Early Archaic settlement.
The Hardaway website functioned as a base camp the place looking and accumulating teams lived for prolonged classes. From this camp they exploited within reach stone outcrops within the Uwharrie Mountains to refill expended toolkits. in response to the result of this learn, Daniel's new version proposes that payment used to be conditioned much less via the supply of nutrition assets than by means of the constrained distribution of top of the range knappable stone within the area. those effects problem the favourite view of Early Archaic payment that crew stream was once principally restrained through the supply of foodstuff assets inside of significant southeastern river valleys.
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Extra resources for Hardaway Revisited: Early Archaic Settlement in the Southeast
Further research involving soil scientists and geologists is therefore essential to clarify the nature of site formation at Hardaway and to identify other locations elsewhere in the Piedmont. CULTURAL STRATIGRAPHY Whatever the site formation processes at Hardaway, the present analysis provides an opportunity to examine projectile point distribution by natural soil zone. ) As Coe (1964:57) reported, the excavation levels correlated only roughly with the natural soil zones, and his interpretations of 24 Excavations at Hardaway the stratigraphy were based upon his ¤eld observations of the excavation by natural zones in 1958 and 1959 and the data analyzed by arbitrary levels from the 1955–1957 seasons.
Perhaps the hilltop formed in this way, or maybe it was created by a major erosional episode. In any event, it began to “¤ll in” sometime between 9,500 and 10,500 years ago. Evidence of ¤lling includes the presence of Hardaway and Palmer deposits that were eventually modi¤ed into B-horizon soils. A much different depositional event took place later and caused a massive accumulation of stone debris. Sometime after the Middle to Late Archaic, the deposition stabilized, resulting more or less in the modern landform.
Since the scale of hunter-gatherer adaptations is that of a region and not a site, the raw material survey permits Hardaway to be placed in a regional context. This phase of the study involved a collections survey to record data on point type and raw material similar to that reported by Anderson and Hanson (1988:¤gure 8). Essentially, this collections survey addressed the problem of band adaptation by tracing the movement of stone raw material—primarily in the form of rhyolite—both within and across the Yadkin–Pee Dee drainage.