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By Dexter Hoyos

Hannibal is the one Carthaginian who's nonetheless a family identify. As chief of the Carthaginians and their empire within the moment Punic warfare from 218 to 201 BC, he made it contact and pass whether or not they or the Romans could come to dominate the Mediterranean west, and after that, roughly unavoidably, the east. He belonged to a impressive relations. Had the Carthaginians gained the conflict and adjusted the process historic heritage, the victory might were due in nice half to Hannibal and his kinsmen, who had rebuilt Carthaginian strength after its catastrophic defeat in 241 at Roman arms.

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The assembly’s powers were oddly qualified. If the sufetes—Aristotle calls them the ‘kings’—and the senate agreed on referring a matter to the people, this was done. Likewise if sufetes and senate disagreed over referral; and (presumably) so again if one sufete and the bulk of the senate were at odds with the other sufete. When consulted, the citizens had more freedom to discuss and decide than for instance Romans did in their assemblies. But Aristotle equally implies that sufetes and senate, if they saw eye to eye, could take decisions without consulting the citizens at all.

For comparison, 241,700 Roman citizens—adult males again—were registered in the census of 247, growing to 273,000 twenty-two years later. Polybius perhaps exaggeratedly reckons the Italian allies of military age in 225 at another half-million. 12 IV To the contemporary Greek world the Carthaginians were barbarians just like the Romans. Neither people spoke Greek (a fatal flaw) and, even by the midthird century, neither had anything that could be called a literature. None the less Greeks put the Carthaginians in a special category long before they did the same for the Romans.

A new clause added the islands ‘between Italy and Sicily’, in other words the Aegates and Lipara groups, to the Punic withdrawal from Sicily. But the revised indemnity clause made the most difference. The 2,200 talents must be paid in ten yearly instalments, plus 1,000 (60 million asses) payable immediately. This heavy lump sum both made it easier to reimburse the Roman citizens whose loans had created Lutatius’ victorious fleet, and at the same time made it harder or impossible for the Carthaginians to renew warfare.

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