By Saeid Mokhatab
Liquefied common gasoline (LNG) is a commercially beautiful section of the commodity that enables the effective dealing with and transportation of normal fuel world wide. The LNG undefined, utilizing applied sciences confirmed over many years of improvement, maintains to extend its markets, diversify its offer chains and bring up its proportion of the worldwide ordinary gasoline alternate. The Handbook of Liquefied typical Gas is a well timed publication because the is presently constructing new huge assets of provide and the applied sciences have advanced lately to allow offshore infrastructure to increase and deal with assets in additional distant and harsher environments. it's the in simple terms publication of its type, protecting the various elements of the LNG offer chain from liquefaction to regasification by way of addressing the LNG industries' basics and markets, in addition to designated engineering and layout rules. a special, well-documented, and forward-thinking paintings, this reference ebook presents a great platform for scientists, engineers, and different pros desirous about the LNG to achieve a greater figuring out of the foremost uncomplicated and complex issues proper to LNG tasks in operation and/or in making plans and improvement.
- Highlights the advancements within the average fuel liquefaction industries and the demanding situations in assembly environmental laws
- Provides directions in using the whole strength of LNG assets
- Offers advices on LNG plant layout and operation in keeping with confirmed practices and layout experience
- Emphasizes expertise choice and innovation with specialise in a ''fit-for-purpose” layout
- Updates code and legislation, security, and safeguard requisites for LNG applications
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Extra info for Handbook of Liquefied Natural Gas
A single large unloading line and a small recirculation line are typically installed from the jetty to the storage area. If necessary, the recirculation line can also be used for unloading LNG. During the FIGURE 1-17 Typical process scheme of an LNG receiving terminal. (Lemmers, 2009) 26 CHAPTER 1 LNG Fundamentals FIGURE 1-18 Model of a typical LNG receiving terminal. holding operation, when the ship is not at port, the unloading line is kept cold by circulating LNG from the sendout system to the jetty using the small circulation line.
The natural gas is transmitted to the natural gas customers by means of distribution pipelines. Historically, onshore LNG terminals are close to densely populated areas and industrial areas, where a diverse range of customers are located. However, large tracts of land with adequate marine access for LNG ships are difficult to locate in densely populated areas. Building terminals close to dense population would raise the environmental and safety/security concerns of local communities. Protracted planning and regulatory approval for a new LNG terminal permit are time consuming and very costly.
BOG from the storage tank is first compressed by a BOG compressor to about 8 barg. The compressor can be a centrifugal or a FIGURE 1-29 BOG recondenser system schematic. 4 Traditional LNG supply chain 37 reciprocating compressor. Typically two or more reciprocating compressors equipped with automatic unloaders are used to meet the BOG turndown requirements. The BOG recondenser is designed with a packed section for vapor and liquid contact. Sufficient LNG must be supplied to condense the BOG to produce a saturated liquid.