By Catrina Bain MBChB MRCOG, Kevin Burton MD MRCOG, Jay McGavigan MBBS MD MRCOG FRANZCOG
It is a visible presentation of Gynaecology aimed toward undergraduate clinical scholars. The powerful structure is perfect for exam education. every one web page covers one subject with concise textual content and linked diagrams. formerly lower than the authorship of Hart and Norman, the recent writer has comprehensively revised the 6th variation of this extremely popular pupil textual content. The titles within the illustrated sequence are valued by means of scholars as a result of their visible presentation of knowledge and are fairly powerful for exam arrangements. For the extra conventional classes this publication will fulfil the position of a path textual content; for problem-based classes it is going to be an outstanding source for problem-solving workouts
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Extra resources for Gynaecology illustrated
Bloodstream Extracellular space Oestrogen Cytoplasm Nucleus Nuclear receptor protein Oestrogen n e trog Oes tor p rece in e t o r p Carrier protein Cell membrane Oestrogen Nuclear membrane Transfer of the oestrogen molecule to the cell nucleus occurs more readily during the FSH phase of the cycle than during the LH phase, when progesterone levels are the highest. The number of oestrogen receptors is reduced after the menopause, but they never disappear. 52 The steroids, being lipids, are transported by quite separate lipophilic proteins, and the tissues stimulated by the steroids have their receptors in the cell cytoplasm, instead of on the cell surface as in the preceding steps of the ovulatory process.
Cervix Levator ani Ureter Vagina Cervix Trigone of bladder Obturator internus Vagina Urethra Ischiorectal fossa Urogenital diaphragm Anterior view shows the very intimate relationship with the bladder base and ureters. 22 Bulb Crus of clitoris Coronal section shows the relationship of vagina and pelvic floor. ANATOMY OF THE REPRODUCTIVE TRACT THE VAGINA In the nulliparous adult, the vagina is H-shaped in section and marked by longitudinal furrows – the columns of the vagina – and numerous transverse ridges or rugae.
In old women, the vagina is thin, atrophic and completely smooth. THE OVARY This is at its largest during the reproductive stage and shrinks thereafter. All the oocytes are gone by the time of the menopause, and the cortex consists of fibrous tissue. THE UTERUS Infantile: the cervix is longer than the corpus, and there is no flexion. Adult: the corpus is now twice as long as the cervix and the normal degree of flexion has appeared. 38 Pubertal: with the gradual increase in oestrogens, the corpus grows in relation to the cervix.