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By Michele Maggiore

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11. 1 The nucleosynthesis bound Nucleosynthesis successfully predicts the primordial abundances of deuterium, 3 He, 4 He and 7 Li in terms of one cosmological parameter η, the baryon to photon ratio. In the prediction enter also parameters of the underlying particle theory, which are therefore constrained in order not to spoil the agreement. In particular, the prediction is sensitive to the effective number of species at time of nucleosynthesis, g∗ = g(T ≃ MeV). With some simplifications, the dependence on g∗ can be understood as follows.

2K, and the effective temperature is Teff = 7 mK. The resonances are at 911 and 929 Hz. The spectral sensitivity reached [219] is similar to that of NAUTILUS. All these bars are designed to operate in a well coordinated way, in order to improve 30 the chances of reliable detection5 . From eq. (99) we see that, without performing correlations between different detectors, the sensitivity that one could get from resonant bars is between at most h20 Ωmin gw (f ) ∼ (f ) ∼ O(10) and therefore quite far from a level where one can expect a O(1) and h20 Ωmin gw cosmological signal.

For zLSS = 1100, eq. (130) gives θLSS ∼ 2o . The temperature fluctuations over an angle θ are related to alm by δT T 2 θ ∼ l2 |alm |2 , for (131) 200o . (132) θ Therefore multipoles up to, say, l ∼ 30, are due to large angle fluctuations, and the corresponding anisotropies alm are dominated by the Sachs-Wolfe effect, due either to scalar perturbations or to GWs. l∼ 45 The waves that were outside the horizon at the last scattering, today have a frequency, √ f< zLSS H0 ≃ 10−16 Hz , (133) where in the last equality we have taken zLSS = O(103 ).

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