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The need to subsidize French military costs and the “Continental System,” which favored French industry, limited economic opportunities. And though armies may convey a feeling of national glory, the draft, the expenses, the casualties, and the recognition that Italian soldiers were fighting for foreign aims caused resentment. After taking power, Napoleon addressed foreign affairs. He defeated Austria in the Battle of Marengo in northern Italy on June 14, 1800; further victories produced the Treaty of Lunéville with Austria (February 9, 1801), which recognized French dominance on the peninsula.

Qxd 10/28/08 2:37 PM Page 29 Napoleon in Italy | 29 P O RT R A I T S E L E O NO R A D E F O N S E C A P I M E N T E L Poet and Martyr 4 orn in Rome on January 13, 1852, of noble Portuguese parents, Eleonora De Fonseca Pimentel moved with her family to Naples at age ten. She received an excellent education, studying Latin and Greek, and corresponded with the most important French and Italian writers of the age. In 1778, Pimentel married a Neapolitan army officer in what turned out to be a very unhappy union.

The grand duke broke up vast governmental holdings into small plots and arranged for their sale to peasants under easy terms. Unfortunately, these buyers proved too poor to meet the conditions of sale and consequently sold the land either to rich city dwellers or to noble landholders. In a related area, the government achieved only mixed success in reclaiming marshland, including the Maremma, an area so unhealthy, a popular song proclaimed, that birds lost their tails if they flew over it. The government partially succeeded in limiting the Church’s influence by curbing mortmain, abolishing fiscal privileges, ending the Inquisition, and suppressing the Jesuits.

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