By Shuanggen Jin, Estel Cardellach, Feiqin Xie
The flexible and to be had GNSS signs can notice the Earth’s floor environments as a brand new, hugely unique, non-stop, all-weather and near-real-time distant sensing instrument. This booklet offers the speculation and strategies of GNSS distant sensing in addition to its functions within the surroundings, oceans, land and hydrology. Ground-based atmospheric sensing, space-borne atmospheric sensing, reflectometry, ocean distant sensing, hydrology sensing in addition to cryosphere sensing with the GNSS should be mentioned in keeping with bankruptcy within the book.
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Additional resources for GNSS Remote Sensing: Theory, Methods and Applications
In addition, the sum of downward and upward trends at globally distributed GPS sites is almost zero, which possibly indicates that the secular variation is in balance at a global scale, but subjecting to unevenly distributed GPS stations, etc. It need further be confirmed with much denser GPS network in 44 3 Ground GNSS Atmospheric Sensing 4 Secular variation velocity (mm/yr) Fig. 10 Distribution of ZTD secular variation velocities (trend) with the altitude of all IGS sites 2 0 -2 -4 -6 0 1000 2000 Altitude (m) 3000 4000 the future.
3 Vienna Mapping Functions 1 (VMF1) The coefficients ah and aw were determined from a rigorous raytracing through global grids of monthly mean profiles for pressure, temperature, and humidity from the ECMWF (European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts) 40 years reanalysis data (ERA40). The coefficients bh and ch were derived from 1 year of ECMWF data in a least squares fit. Whereas bh is constant, ch depends on the day of year and the latitude. Since the coefficient aw is sufficient to model the dependence of the wet mapping function on latitude, bw and cw were taken from the Niell mapping function (Niell 1996) at 45ı latitude (Boehm and Schuh 2004).
It can see that the mean uncertainty of ZTD is about 3 mm. The mean ZTD values at all GPS sites are shown in Fig. 4 as a color map. It has noted that lower ZTD values are found at the areas of Tibet (Asia), Andes 38 3 Ground GNSS Atmospheric Sensing 90 Latitude (deg) 60 30 0 −30 −60 −90 0 60 120 180 240 Longitude (deg) 300 360 Fig. 0 0 2 4 6 Sigma (mm) 8 10 Fig. 3 Histogram of the uncertainty for the ZTD solutions at 150 sites Mountain (South America), Northeast Pacific and higher latitudes (Antarctica and Arctic), and the higher ZTD values are concentrated at the areas of middle-low latitudes (also see Fig.