By Alexander J. De Grand
Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany offers a succinct and provocative advent to Italian fascism and German nazism. Incorporating contemporary ancient examine including unique and difficult arguments, Alexander J. De Grand examines:* the similarities and variations within the early improvement of the 2 regimes* the workout of energy by way of Adolf Hitler and Benito Mussolini* the connection among the 2 regimes* regulations in the direction of girls, adolescence and culture.Revised all through, the second one variation of this revered booklet takes account of contemporary old study and comprises an improved dialogue of the position of the army within the regimes.
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Extra resources for Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany: The 'Fascist' Style of Rule (Historical Connections)
To have drafted an entirely new constitution in either Italy or Germany involved many economic, social and political issues better left undeﬁned until the new order was fully consolidated. Thus neither regime formally replaced the old constitution with a new one. For example, the Nazis never bothered to abolish the old states of Germany, even after they had been drained of real power in March and April 1933. The January 1934 Law for the Reconstruction of the Reich left the Länder as sinecures for powerful Nazi provincial leaders.
However, the Nazi consolidation of power was compressed into a much shorter period of time. Two things account for this. First, as Tim Mason noted, the National Socialists had developed much further as a mass movement and therefore Hitler held a stronger position vis-à-vis his conservative allies. In 1922 Mussolini’s party, though it was a substantial ﬁghting force in the North and Centre, controlled but a small faction in parliament; the PNF had not penetrated in much of the South, and the conservative institutional structure was extremely strong.
The Italian Statuto dating from 1848 was still in force and no case had been made for its total abandonment in order to return to strong government. Hitler had both the Italian and the Bolshevik models to draw upon in setting up a single party state, whereas Mussolini had been moving in uncharted waters with allies who were not at all convinced that the parliamentary system needed to be destroyed. In Germany, not only were the conservatives politically weaker, but they were less committed to the survival of the recently created Weimar constitution.