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By Olʹgert Olʹgin

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Kaolin, chalk, and similar powders do not allow the coloured solution to spread in the fabric and leave a ring around the removed spot. Now let us say a few words about oxidationreduction (redox) reactions, which can also help to remove stains. Fresh berry and juice stains can quite often be removed with plain hot water. If this is not enough, these stains on white fabrics can be decolourized by a hydrogen peroxide solution, made, for example, by dissolving a hydroperoxide tablet in half a glass of water.

Add an adsorbent to a vessel containing coloured gas and shake it several times: the colour will disappear completely or fade considerably. Many kitchens are now equipped with various devices for cleaning the air above gas stoves from fumes and smoke. All such devices have one feature in common: a cartridge with an adsorbent, through which the smokey air is pumped. Now you know how this works. When the whole surface of the adsorbent is covered with particles adsorbed from the air, the used cartridge is replaced with a fresh one.

Repeat this operation several times with pieces of chalk, marble, or eggshell. Put the calcinated pieces into a clean tin. While they are cooling, place the largest of them on a saucer and apply several drops of water to the part that was heated. You will hear a hissing sound, all the water will be absorbed by the chalk, and the heated part will disintegrate into powder. This powder is slaked lime Ca(OH)2. Add more water, and apply a little phenolphthalein. The water in the saucer will turn red, which indicates that the slaked lime solution is basic.

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