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With such large scanning efforts, the traceroute technique is cast into a customized program that selects target hosts and executes many traces in parallel. 6 An important issue in mapping projects is that the used packet probes must not be confused with hacking attempts. For this reason, paths are usually discovered one hop at a time by progressively increasing the packet TTL, and tracing attempts are repeated over long time intervals. Once the packet reaches the host, the path is stored and the target address is saved for routinely repeating the tracing process.
How long it takes for each packet to make the round trip to its destination. Other features, such as the measure of the number of packets lost in a certain time window, are also implemented. The NLANR and CAIDA measurement infrastructures use ping-like probes from their monitors to collect RTT and packet loss data for hundreds or thousands of Internet destinations. Other organizations and projects, such as the PingER monitoring infrastructure17 and the R´eseaux IP Europ´eens (RIPE),18 have also a number of sites sending regularly ICMP probes to a few hundred targets to monitor the end-to-end performance of Internet links.
A routing instability (also referred to as a route ﬂap) is deﬁned as a rapid change of network reachability. The origin of routing instabilities can be traced back to router congestions, transient physical outages, or conﬁguration errors. When a router is unreachable, its peers send a BGP update, announcing the withdrawal of the corresponding routing paths. The message is then spread from peer to peer through a large number of BGP updates. The subsequent change in routing paths may create other ﬂaps and the routing instability can propagate through the network and eventually lead to the transient loss of connectivity of large regions of the Internet.