By Wossenu Abtew
The booklet is an intensive presentation of theoretical and utilized elements of the evaporation and evapotranspiration approach supported by way of information from experimental experiences. it truly is written in a manner that the theoretical historical past of evaporation and evapotranspiration estimation is gifted in a simplified demeanour, finished to such a lot technical readers. The e-book bargains with info of meteorological parameters and tracking sensors that are wanted for estimating evaporation and evapotranspiration. blunders in meteorological parameter measurements also are provided. Estimation error, strengths, weaknesses and applicability of a variety of evaporation and evapotranspiration estimation tools are awarded besides samples of software to a definite sector. program of more moderen less complicated tools is gifted. a brand new know-how, distant sensing software to evaporation and evapotranspiration estimation, is gifted. the most recent curiosity within the topic, weather swap and evapotranspiration is gifted within the final bankruptcy. This ebook could be invaluable to scholars, hydrologists, engineers, meteorologists, water managers and others.
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Additional resources for Evaporation and Evapotranspiration: Measurements and Estimations
Water level in the lysimeter was measured with an analog evaporation gauge, Model 6844-A. 38 mm of true water level. The data logger records depth to water 34 3 Evaporation and Evapotranspiration Measurement Fig. 2 Network of pipes inside a wet lysimeter, (a) inflow and outflow pipes and (b) stilling well (Photograph provided by South Florida Water Management District) level, inflow, outflow, and time at which pumps were turned on and turned off. The lysimeter was a fully automated system where data were scanned every 5 s and registered at a 15-min interval.
7 Wind Speed and Wind Direction 17 Fig. 12 Monthly mean wind speed at four sites in Lake Okeechobee, Florida (1994–2010) Wind speed measurement sites require open spaces with no obstructions such as buildings, fences, and vegetation. Wind speed is a function of the characteristics of ground surface. The resistance to wind flow by ground cover such as vegetation results in determining the wind speed profile over that surface. Generally, wind speed data are relatively of good quality if sensors are installed at appropriate locations.
For every area, solar range and mean values can be known from observations, and information can be used for data quality evaluation. As an illustration of data quality, Fig. 18 depicts the 1995 daily solar radiation from four weather stations on Lake Okeechobee, south Florida. Displayed also are the extraterrestrial solar flux and clear sky solar radiation. Incoming solar radiation data greater than Rso are erroneous. Sensor problems at site L005 are apparent with positive bias in the first half of the year and negative bias in the later part of the year.