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By Cook Chris, Paxton John (auth.)

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Pertini 9 Jul 1978–3 Jul 1985 F. L. A. Ciampi 18 May 1999– LATVIA Proclaimed a sovereign state on 18 Nov 1918. PRESIDENT J. Tschakste G. Zemgals 18 Nov 1918–8 Apr 1927 8 Apr 1927–8 Apr 1930 A. Kviesis 9 Apr 1930–11 Apr 1936 K. Ulmanis 12 Apr 1936–21 Jul 1940 The USSR agreed to accept Latvia on 6 Aug 1940. The USSR recognized the independence of Latvia on 10 Sep 1991. CHAIRMAN OF THE SUPREME COUNCIL A. Gorbunovs –7 Jul 1993 52 European Political Facts PRESIDENT G. Ulmanis 7 Jul 1993–8 Jul 1999 V.

Sartzetakis 29 Mar 1985–5 May 1990 K. Karamanlis 5 May 1990–10 Mar 1995 K. Stefanopoulos 10 Mar 1995– Heads of State 49 HUNGARY The Austrian Emperors ruled Hungary as Emperors until the Dual Monarchy on 12 Jun 1867, when they became separately Emperors of Austria and Kings of Hungary. The Emperor Karl renounced his power in the government of Hungary on 13 Nov 1918. An independent Republic was proclaimed on 16 Nov 1918. PROVISIONAL PRESIDENT Count M. Károlyi 16 Nov 1918–22 Mar 1919 The Soviet Hungarian Republic was proclaimed by Béla Kun’s government on 22 Mar 1919, and was followed by a counter-revolutionary régime under Admiral Horthy.

Article 4 Recommendations and Decisions ‘. . shall be adopted only with the consent of the interested member countries’. The supreme authority was the Session of all members held (usually annually) in members’ capitals in rotation. All decisions were unanimous. The Executive Committee was made up of one representative from each member state of deputy premier rank. It met at least once every three months and had a Bureau for Common Questions of Economic Planning. The administrative organ was the Secretariat.

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