By Ian M Symonds; Sabaratnam Arulkumaran; E M Symonds
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Extra info for Essential obstetrics and gynaecology
Birth weight and placental weight are directly related to maternal VLDL triglyceride levels at term. The hyperlipidaemia of normal pregnancy is not atherogenic, although pregnancy can unmask pathological hyperlipidaemia. Mothers are usually protected from the potentially harmful effects of increasing lipid peroxidation in pregnancy by an increase in endogenous antioxidants, although this may be inadequate in pre-eclampsia. An adequate dietary intake of antioxidants such as vitamin A, the carotenoids and provitamin A carotenoids is also needed.
Amino acids With the exception of alanine and glutamic acid, amino acid levels in maternal plasma decrease below nonpregnant values. There is active transport of amino acids to the fetus as building blocks for protein synthesis and gluconeogenesis. Calcium MATERNAL WEIGHT GAIN Pregnancy is an anabolic state. 5 kg. Many women during the first trimester do not gain any weight because of reduced food intake associated with loss of appetite and morning sickness. 4 kg/week until term (Fig. 13). 2 lb) 15 Weight (kg) The total serum lipid concentration rises from about 600 to 1000 mg per 100 mL.
THE UTERUS The non-pregnant uterus weighs ~40–100 g, increasing during pregnancy to 300–400 g at 20 weeks and 800– 1000 g at term. Involution is rapid over the first 2 weeks after delivery, but slows thereafter and is not complete by 24 Fig. 1 Decussation of muscle fibres in the various layers of the human uterus. 2 months. The uterus consists of bundles of smooth muscle cells separated by thin sheets of connective tissue composed of collagen, elastic fibres and fibroblasts. All hypertrophy during pregnancy.