By Bernd Kramer
Some fishes attempt their setting by means of producing electrical fields open air their our bodies (man's first touch with electricity). To ship and obtain electrical indications, one's personal or these from a neighbor, is the root of a few bony fishes' strange sensory capacities that permit them to steer a mystery, nocturnal lifestyles. This quantity offers the reader with a close account of those fishes' biology and behaviour and their subtle sensory capacities. The phylogenetic relationships of the fish taxa concerned are mentioned in addition to the body structure and anatomy of the electrosensory-motor-system and the mixing to shape a good intelligence method. the most emphasis is at the descriptive and experimental research of electrical communique habit in a number of species, together with reports of electronic sign synthesis. at any time when attainable, mechanisms of communique are indicated.
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Additional info for Electrocommunication in Teleost Fishes: Behavior and Experiments
5 m in length, requiring synchronization among electrocytes about 2m apart). Fibers running to nearer parts of the organ take a more devious path, or have a lower conduction velocity than fibers running to the far end of the organ (see Bennett 1971a; Meszler et al. 1974). The ionic mechanisms of electrocyte membranes differ widely among species; these differences are the main source of the wide variation of organ discharge waveforms and (requencies among species. An organ discharge may be either of the pulse ("buzzer") or of the wave ("hummer") type (see Fig.
R -....... •. ,-_........ environment Fig. l3. Interactions between EOD-evoked reafferent input and the electric organ corollary discharge (EO CD) for all three electroreceptor systems of a morrnyrid. When the EOD command nucleus at left evokes an EOD, an EOeD signal is relayed to the electro sensory lateral line lobe, ELL (symbolized here by components between "higher centers" and horizontal EO CD-line). In the Knollenorgan region, reafferent input is blocked by the EOeD (as symbolized by an inhibitory input to a NAND gate).
10). The presence of objects evokes similar changes. Bell (1990) found physiological differences between the afferent fibers arising from the two types of mormyromast sensory cells when recorded near their separate central terminations in the ELL (as shown by Bell et al. 1989; see previous Section). Chief among these were a higher threshold and a reduced number of maximal spikes from fibers arising from the outer sensory cells compared to fibers arising from the inner sensory cells. Similar findings were obtained from re<;:ordings from the peripheral electrosensory nerve, so that most likely fibers from both sensory cell types were represented in the sample.