Download Earth System Monitoring: Selected Entries from the by John Orcutt PDF

By John Orcutt

Modern Earth process tracking represents a primary switch within the manner scientists learn the Earth System.  In Oceanography, for the earlier centuries, ships have supplied the systems for observing.  Expeditions at the continents and Earth’s poles are land-based analogues. basic realizing of present structures, weather, average dangers, and ecosystems has been tremendously complex. whereas those techniques were remarkably profitable, the necessity to identify measurements through the years can basically be made utilizing Earth observations and observatories with exacting criteria and non-stop data.  the nineteen peer-reviewed contributions during this quantity offer early insights into this emerging view of Earth in either house and time during which switch is a serious part of our growing understanding.

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The 1,064- and 591-nm wavelengths probe different aerosol size distributions. 6 shows the aerosol backscattering ratio at both 1,064- and 591-nm wavelengths as a function of altitude. This ratio is the backscatter at either wavelength to the molecular atmospheric backscatter at the pressure altitude. If the ratio is zero, then there is no aerosol scattering, only molecular scattering. Most of the aerosol backscattering occurs near the ground which is the atmospheric source of aerosols. 50 UT) where they are hydrated by moisture and thus grow in size producing greater backscatter.

The atmospheric return signals are combined with ground elevation data and DC-8 navigation and in situ water vapor data to create a composite water vapor return. There are three wavelength on- and off-line pairs used for different atmospheric water absorption conditions as well as three amplifier gains to increase the measurement dynamic range. This data is used to create an initial DIAL calculation for water vapor and also relative aerosol backscatter. Temperature, pressure, and relative humidity data from radiosondes on the DC-8 are used to calculate the effect of temperature and pressure on water vapor line boarding as well as aerosol scattering.

1007/978-1-4614-5684-1_3, # Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013 35 36 Extinction coefficient In situ Lidar Passive remote sensing Polarization Primary trace atmospheric gas or particles Relative humidity Scattering Scattering coefficient Stratosphere Troposphere R. De Young The fraction of incident radiant energy removed by extinction per unit of travel of radiation through the air. Methods for obtaining information about atmospheric properties through direct contact with the atmosphere as opposed to remote sensing.

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