By Zhilin Li
Written via specialists, electronic Terrain Modeling: rules and method presents entire insurance of modern advancements within the box. the themes contain terrain research, sampling procedure, acquisition technique, floor modeling ideas, triangulation algorithms, interpolation strategies, online and off-line qc in info acquisition, DTM accuracy overview and mathematical types for DTM accuracy prediction, multi-scale illustration, info administration, contouring, visible research (or visualization), the derivation of varied kinds of terrain parameters, and destiny improvement and purposes.
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Extra info for Digital Terrain Modeling: Principles and Methodology
Slope is the first derivative of altitude on the terrain surface. It shows the rate of change in height of the terrain over distance. From the practical point of view, using slope (and relief ) as the main terrain descriptor for DTM purposes can be justified for the following reasons: 1. Traditionally, slope has been recognized as very important and used in surveying and mapping. For example, map specifications for contours are given in terms of slope angle all over the world. 2. In the determination of vertical contour intervals (CIs) for topographic maps, slope and relief (height range) are the two main parameters considered.
Of course, there are other processes involved. 14 shows the whole process for DTM data acquisition by InSAR. As the baseline can be determined by GPS data on board, the following discussion concentrates on the computation of phase differences. First, two SAR complex images are used, one referred to as the master image and the other as the slave image. These two images may have different orientations because the antennas may have slightly different attitudes at different times. Therefore, they need to be transformed to the same coordinate system and resampled into pixels with the same size in terms of ground distance so that they could match each other.
2 Sampling from Different Points of View Points on a terrain surface can be viewed in various ways from the differing viewpoints inherent in subjects such as statistics, geometry, topographic, science, etc. Therefore, different sampling methods can be designed and evaluated according to each of these different viewpoints as follows (Li 1990): 1. statistics-based sampling 2. geometry-based sampling 3. feature-based sampling. From the statistical point of view, a terrain surface is a population (called a sample space) and the sampling can be carried out either randomly or systematically.