By Peter Gluckman, Mark Hanson
This landmark ebook presents the 1st definitive account of the way and why sophisticated impacts at the fetus and through adolescence may have such profound effects for grownup wellbeing and fitness and ailments. even though the epidemiological proof for this hyperlink has lengthy proved compelling, it's only even more lately that the medical and physiological foundation has all started to be studied intensive and completely understood. The compilation, written through a few of the world's prime specialists during this interesting box, summarizes those clinical and medical advances.
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Extra resources for Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
1994). The increased risk of diabetes among those of high birthweight was associated with maternal diabetes in pregnancy. Both deﬁciency in insulin production and insulin resistance are thought to be important in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. There is evidence that both may be determined in fetal life. As discussed further in Chapter 16, infants who are small for dates have fewer pancreatic β cells and there is evidence that nutritional and other factors determining fetal and infant growth inﬂuence the size and function of the adult β cell complement (Hales and Barker 1992).
Although nutrition has received the most focus (Langley and Jackson 1994, Vickers et al. 2000, Bertram and Hanson 2001), other early environmental factors such as infection, season of birth (Doblhammer and Vaupel 2001) and smoking (Power and Jefferis 2002) may also have long-term effects. We have proposed that the mechanisms through which maternal inﬂuences lead to developmental plastic responses include (a) a mismatch between fetal nutrient demands, largely determined by the growth trajectory set in early pregnancy, and the maternoplacental capacity to meet this demand, (b) alterations in the fetal endocrine milieu, and (c) changes in placental vascular impedance, which impact on fetal cardiovascular loading.
O. (1991). Relation of birth weight and childhood respiratory infection to adult lung function and death from chronic obstructive airways disease. BMJ, 303, 671–5. Conclusion Degenerative diseases, including cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, osteoporosis and obstructive airways disease, have higher rates among poorer people and cause much disability in both developed and developing communities. The evidence that links the combination of poor maternal nutrition, impaired fetal/infant development and increased weight gain in early childhood to later cardiovascular disease is now strong.