By Philipp K. Janert
Amassing info is comparatively effortless, yet turning uncooked info into anything necessary calls for that you simply know the way to extract accurately what you wish. With this insightful booklet, intermediate to skilled programmers drawn to information research will examine thoughts for operating with facts in a company setting. You'll how you can examine facts to find what it comprises, the way to catch these principles in conceptual versions, after which feed your figuring out again into the association via company plans, metrics dashboards, and different applications.
Along the best way, you'll scan with recommendations via hands-on workshops on the finish of every bankruptcy. especially, you'll how one can take into consideration the implications you need to achieve—rather than depend upon instruments to imagine for you.
• Use photographs to explain info with one, , or dozens of variables
• strengthen conceptual versions utilizing back-of-the-envelope calculations, in addition to scaling and likelihood arguments
• Mine info with computationally extensive equipment corresponding to simulation and clustering
• Make your conclusions comprehensible via experiences, dashboards, and different metrics programs
• comprehend monetary calculations, together with the time-value of money
• Use dimensionality aid strategies or predictive analytics to beat demanding information research situations
• familiarize yourself with diversified open resource programming environments for info research
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Additional info for Data Analysis with Open Source Tools
Probability plot for the data set shown in Figure 2-9. distribution function ((x − μ)/σ ) with mean μ and standard deviation σ : yi = xi − μ σ only if data is Gaussian Here, yi is the value of the cumulative distribution function corresponding to the data point xi ; in other words, yi is the quantile of the point xi . Now comes the trick. We apply the inverse of the Gaussian distribution function to both sides of the equation: −1 (yi ) = xi − μ σ With a little bit of algebra, this becomes xi = μ + σ −1 (yi ) In other words, if we plot the values in the data set as a function of −1 (yi ), then they should fall onto a straight line with slope σ and zero intercept μ.
So far, I have always assumed that we want to compare an empirical data set against a theoretical distribution. But there may also be situations where we want to compare two empirical data sets against each other—for example, to find out whether they were drawn from the same family of distributions (without having to specify the family explicitly). The process is easiest to understand when both data sets we want to compare contain the same number of points. You sort both sets and then align the points from both data sets that have the same rank (once sorted).
Do many data points lie far away from the central group of points), or are most of the points—with the possible exception of individual outliers—confined to a restricted region? • If there are clusters, how many are there? Is there only one, or are there several? Approximately where are the clusters located, and how large are they—both in terms of spread and in terms of the number of data points belonging to each cluster? • Are the clusters possibly superimposed on some form of unstructured background, or does the entire data set consist only of the clustered data points?