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By Dmitry Yu. Ivanov

This finished systematic review covers the static and dynamic serious phenomena of actual, non-ideal fluids within the nearest area of the serious element, bargains new ways and offers learn effects at the optimum point. together with either theoretical and experimental researches, it additionally bargains with the severe opalescence as phenomenon with continually starting to be scattering multiplicity upon impending the severe aspect.

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Liquids, solutions, binary alloys, and anisotropic ferro- and antiferromagnets together with the Ising model (n = 1) form the same universality class. This is the type of objects that we are examining in this book and in particular we shall discuss their behavior using the example of the liquid–gas critical point. , [26, 40]) called ‘‘rigorous’’ keeping in mind the thermodynamic rigor of their proof. 2 Determination of Critical Parameters To process the results of any experiment in the vicinity of the critical point by equations like Eqs.

001%) in the own setup scale with a sensitivity of ±2 Pa and reproducibility of the measurements no worse than ±5 Pa. The experimental setup in [98, 99] used almost the same parameters. Such setups are extremely rare in the world and the quality of the data obtained is usually well known. , [40], p. 112). In addition to subjective judgements on this theme, one can obtain an objective idea about the accuracy, sensitivity and reproducibility of the data in this experiment from Figs. 21, where (partly or in full) the coexistence curve, critical isotherm, and critical isochore of pure SF6 , obtained with the help of this setup, are shown [87–91, 128].

15 [141]. The plots are drawn using data from [87, 91]. 5 The coexistence curve of SF6 [87, 91]. becomes curvilinear [87, 89, 91]. Such behavior in pure liquids was simultaneously and independently found on SF6 [87, 144]. In [87], it was observed using direct (pVT)-measurements, and in [144] by analyzing the temperature dependence of the dielectric constant. 003 K. The size of the vertical line corresponds to the temperature measurement error ±2 × 10−4 K [87, 91]. , [98, 121, 125, 129, 131, 145–151]).

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