Download Crime, Disorder, and the Risorgimento: The Politics of by Steven C. Hughes PDF

By Steven C. Hughes

This publication presents a meticulous exam of the ideology, constitution, and services of the papal police as they operated within the urban and province of Bologna within the interval sooner than Italian solidarity, and in doing so deals an enormous new interpretation of the Risorgimento. the writer argues that when the recovery the recent police quickly discovered themselves incapable of dealing successfully with overwhelming difficulties of crime and public order. In permitting Bologna's elites to arm themselves in posse-style "citizen patrols" on events, the papal executive had opened the doorways to reform and, ultimately, revolution.

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Bellettini, La popolazione delle campagne, p. 188. BOLOGNA, THE ANCIEN REGIME, AND NAPOLEON 17 and what innovations did come were usually at the expense of the rural workers' stability. 36 In the city, old ties on the economy were abolished and urban property was more evenly distributed among the upper and middle classes, but more people than ever sank into unemployment and destitution as traditional industries continued to languish or disappear. More than ever, Bologna became a city of economic disparity with the top 10 percent of the families living solely on the income of their urban and rural holdings, 20 percent exercising some form of profession or commerce which allowed them a relatively comfortable life, and 70 percent working at a wide assortment of manual jobs that were often low paying and insecure.

49 The situation was all the worse for the poor harvest of that year, the first of a series that lasted until 1817 and made the transition period a particularly onerous one for the majority of the province's population. Reports of starvation in the mountains and people surviving solely on acorns abounded; and, combined with endemic economic stagnation in the city, this overwhelming misery seriously threatened the good order so desired by the provisional government. 50 A lack of efficient public force hampered Savini's efforts to overcome these dangers.

On the transition see Maria Moscarini, La restaurazione pontijicia nelleprovincie diprima ricupera, Rome: 1933; Quaquarelli, La ricostruzione, pp. 16-23, 38-45, 134. On Consalvi's early years see John Martin Robinson, Cardinal Consalvi, 1737—1824, N e w York: 1987, pp. 18—31. See Consalvi to the papal nunzio, Severoli, in Vienna, Dec. 14, 1816, in appendix to Massimo Petrocchi, La restaurazione, il Cardinale Consalvi e la riforma del 1816, Florence: 1941, p. 252. CONSALVI S COPS 31 century, who had been defeated by local interest and influence.

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