By Charles Tilly
This research of the connection among democratization and contentious politics builds upon the version set forth in Dynamics of rivalry (Cambridge, 2001). evaluating the Low international locations, Iberia, France, the British Isles, the Balkans, Russia, and different ecu areas over 3 and a part turbulent centuries, the e-book demonstrates how comparable recurrent causal mechanisms in numerous mixtures, sequences, and preliminary stipulations produced contrasting trajectories towards and clear of democracy in several components of the continent. additionally on hand: Dynamics of competition 0-521-80588-0 Hardback $60.00 C 0-521-01187-6 Paperback $22.00 D
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Extra info for Contention and Democracy in Europe, 1650-2000
In 19th-century France and Britain, proletarianization and urbanization were weakening old trust networks, promoting the politicization of others, and drawing governments into provision of new guarantees for credit, household survival, and religious choice. Although both countries (as we see below) underwent massive struggles over religiously based trust networks during the 19th century, eventually they dissolved some segregated networks, and at least partially integrated the rest. 3 transform public politics at large, but those transformations of public politics affect citizen-agent relations.
Such incremental (and often temporary) increases in protected consultation frequently occurred in the aftermath of major struggles. 23 Contention and Democracy in Europe, 1650–2000 What sorts of struggles? In European experience since 1650, four recurrent circumstances have sometimes activated multiple democracypromoting mechanisms: revolution, conquest, confrontation, and colonization. All involve abrupt shocks to existing social arrangements. Revolution? As England’s Glorious Revolution of 1688–89 and the Russian revolution of 1905 illustrate, revolutions do not universally promote moves toward broad, equal citizenship, binding consultation, and protection.
16 Contention and Democracy Nor does the argument mean that categorical inequality within a regime’s subject population fatally hinders democratization or that collective action by members of subordinate categories threatens democracy. As we see below, in Europe protected consultation sometimes increased despite rising material inequality. The crucial question is whether categorical inequality translates directly into durable divisions within public politics – political organizations, rights, obligations, and relations with governmental agents sharply segregated by class, gender, ethnicity, or some other categorical division.