By G. Talbot
Censorship and customary experience in Fascist Italy, 1922-43 is the 1st finished account of the variety and complexity of censorship practices in Italy below the Fascist dictatorship. by way of proposing archival fabric from the political police; the Italian army; the major Minister's press workplace, and its next incarnation, the Ministry for pop culture, it indicates how practices of censorship have been used to influence regime switch, to degree and to form public opinion, habit and attitudes within the two decades of Mussolini's dictatorship.
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Additional info for Censorship in Fascist Italy, 1922-43: Policies, Procedures and Protagonists
This rose to 40 million in 1929–30. Bocchini had access to very significant resources. 34 Bocchini, like Mussolini, brought in his own men, starting with Ernesto Gulì, who had worked with him at the Prefecture in Brescia. Gulì was given expedient promotion in order to bring him to the appropriate grade, to enable him to take charge of the Political Police. He also brought in Michelangelo Di Stefano from Bologna. 35 In order to keep their activities as secret as possible, in 1927 the Political Police set up its own divisional archive of documents, presided over by Domenico Farese, Tommaso Nesci and Emilio Pellecchia.
It is important to bear in mind, however, that Mussolini and his Fascists did not invent either censorship or propaganda in Italy. Both had a very long history on the peninsula. Preventive censorship had been practised extensively by the Catholic Church, especially from the Council of Trent onwards when the combination of reform and the printing press threatened its hegemony in Christendom. In secular terms King Carlo Alberto’s pre-Unification edict on the press of 26 March 1848 remained in place until the Fascist laws of 1923–25.
Mussolini, however, indulged the Crespo brothers, owners of Il Corriere della Sera, to some degree, by agreeing to their choice of Rome editor (Aldo Valori) rather than his own nomination (Roberto Forges Davanzati). Il Corriere della Sera experienced no significant drop in sales, so Mussolini felt sufficiently confident to remove Ojetti, and replace him with the harder-line Maffio Maffii, who had worked in the Ufficio Stampa. This pattern of hostile takeover and fascistization affected the less prominent newspaper titles too, at times degenerating into rivalries between different factions within the Fascist movement, such as the cases of Il Resto del Carlino in Bologna and Il Mattino in Naples.