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By Stephen Jacobson

Providing a window into the historical past of the trendy criminal occupation in Western Europe, Stephen Jacobson offers a background of legal professionals within the so much industrialized urban at the Mediterranean. faraway from being mere curators of static legislation, Barcelona's legal professionals have been on the middle of social clash and political and fiscal swap, mediating among kingdom, kinfolk, and society.Beginning with the resurrection of a decadent bar throughout the Enlightenment, Jacobson lines the historic evolution of attorneys in the course of the lengthy 19th century. one of the concerns he explores are the attributes of the trendy criminal occupation, how legal professionals engaged with the Enlightenment, how they molded occasions within the Age of Revolution and helped consolidate a liberal constitutional order, why a liberal career grew to become conservative and corporatist, and the way attorneys promoted fin-de-siècle nationalism.From the vantage aspect of a urban with a special criminal tradition,Catalonia's Advocates presents clean perception into eu social and felony historical past; the origins of liberal professionalism; the schooling, education, and perform of legislations within the 19th century; the growth of continental bureaucracies; and the corporatist points of contemporary nationalism.

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Extra info for Catalonia's Advocates: Lawyers, Society, and Politics in Barcelona, 1759-1900 (Studies in Legal History)

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5 Although his study is limited to England, the description also fits continental trends. In concrete terms, the old bar declined, and a modern one emerged. In the sixteenth and seven­ teenth centuries, lawyers had represented a range of clients with civil disputes from a wide swath of society, and litigation had been a more regular occurrence, a more general and less exceptional manner of dispute resolution than it ever had been or would be in history. 6 The reasons for this were not uniform and need to be studied on a case-by-case basis, but with respect to Catalonia, and other places on the continent, absolutism was the cause.

With regard to politics, liberalism never won the hearts and minds of those excluded from its small franchise; it was ultimately consolidated through military victory over absolutists in civil wars. It is probable that Catalonia witnessed higher levels of political violence than any other region in Europe during the first three decades of the nineteenth century. The agrarian world was the chief source of instability. ” Beyond the industrial belt were the foothills of the Pyrenees, where free trade destroyed uncompetitive economies and where revolutionary laws disentailing and auctioning off church and municipal lands wrought havoc on property rela-  Introduction S 15 tions, causing massive social dislocation.

The most dynamic new presence, however, was the Catalanist Student Center (Centre Escolar Catalanista), an organization led by law students and also founded in 1886. Although most of its members hailed from the political Right, not all were traditionalists. Many latched onto novel theories of race and degeneration then running rampant in Europe. ” Nationalism was like “Catalanism,” insofar as it supported home rule, but it fortified romanticist claims with the potent formula of Herderian national self-determination mixed with anthropological and biological theories of ethnicity.

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