By Pierre-Gilles de Gennes

The research of capillarity is in the course of a veritable explosion. as a result the temptation to jot down a brand new ebook, aiming at an viewers of scholars. what's provided here's now not a complete assessment of the newest learn yet really a compendium of ideas. How does one flip a hydrophilic floor into one who is hydrophobic, and vice versa? we are going to describe a number of suggestions. a few depend upon chemical remedies, corresponding to coating a floor with a molecular layer. Others are in keeping with physics, for example via controlling the roughness of a floor. we'll additionally learn the dynamics of wetting. Drops that unfold spontaneously achieve this at a expense that slows down with time. they are often tricked into protecting huge parts through spreading them without notice. we'll describe a number of the many elements in their dynamical homes. certain ingredients are required for water to foam. Foams are fascinating in a shampoo yet could be a nightmare in a dishwasher detergent. Antifoam brokers were built and are renowned, yet how do they paintings? it's also attainable to generate bubbles and foams with no designated ingredients, for instance in natural and viscous drinks similar to glycerin, molten glass, and polymers. As we'll see, the legislation of draining and bursting then turn into particularly diverse from the traditional ones. This ebook will permit the reader to appreciate merely such questions that impact each day lifestyles -- questions that still arise in the course of in undefined. the purpose is to view structures that regularly end up particularly complicated in a manner that isolates a specific actual phenomenon, frequently averting descriptions requiring complex numerical options will many times in desire of qualitative arguments. This technique might every now and then jeopardize medical rigor, however it makes it attainable to know issues successfully and to invent novel occasions.

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34), Z = (det D)−1/2 , for bosons. 99) instead of the factor 2. Second, and this is related to the ﬁrst, is the fact that the fermion ﬁelds are actually antiperiodic in imaginary time, with period β, instead of periodic as is the case for bosons. The consequence is that ωn = (2n + 1)πT for fermions whereas ωn = 2πnT for bosons. 99). ) is deceptively simple. It must be kept simple, for if we think back on the tremendous progress made in mechanics and electromagnetism in the nineteenth century, it was certainly made easier by the introduction of compact notation for diﬀerentiation, integration, and vectors.

9). Next we look at order λ2 in ln ZI . 12) may be analyzed algebraically using functional integrals or it may be analyzed diagrammatically. 2 Diagrammatic rules for λφ4 theory 37 We then pair the lines as before. 14), we observe that all the disconnected diagrams cancel. 15) What is needed at some arbitrary order N in the perturbative expansion of ln ZI should now be clear. 16) N =1 where ln ZN is proportional to λN . The “ﬁnite-temperature Feynman rules” at order N are: 1 2 3 4 5 Draw all connected diagrams.

6) uses a Dirac delta function whose argument is a diﬀerence between two functions. A less formal and compact, but more practical, way to view these objects is to start with a complete orthonormal set of real functions for the physical problem of interest. Call this set wn (x), with n any positive integer. 103) and so on. Most physical problems are deﬁned on the space of a continuous variable, such as position. For such problems it is intuitively obvious that the functional integral ought to be divergent in general since the possible functional conﬁgurations form an uncountably inﬁnite set.