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By Michael Greenberg

An account of the actions of British retailers in China within the an important years ahead of the Treaty of Nanking (1842), which reworked the kin among the Celestial Empire and the Western 'barbarians' and positioned them upon a footing that was once to final for a hundred years. Mr Greenberg exhibits how this transformation used to be caused by means of the pressures of the increasing British economic system of the early 19th century. a lot of the cloth is predicated at the papers of Jardine Matheson and Co., the single company of pre-treaty days to outlive, and the biggest of the British organizations then validated in Canton.

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Extra info for British Trade and the Opening of China 1800-42

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1791 , and Chronicles, II, passim. 1 783. ' Chronicles, II, 142. 1 Chronicles, II, 63-6. 1 These automata had the advantage of being one of the few articles which the West could produce before the age of machinery of interest to the East. They amused the Mandarins in Canton and Pekin,2 and were given by the Hong merchants as obligatory New Year presents to the Government officials. The chief suppliers were John Cox, of Shoe Lane, London, and Francis Magniac, of Clerkenwell. On the death of the former, his son John Henry Cox was allowed to go to China in 1782 to sell off the remainder of his stock.

2 As a result, whereas in 1780 seven 'private English' were recorded as resident in China, there was only one in 1783. The Company had succeeded in scotching these first crude attempts of unruly persons outside its service to gain a footing in the Celestial Empire. The one 'free' merchant left after the expulsion of Smith and the others was John Henry Cox. He was in China on a different basis from the others, as a dealer in English 'singsongs', a peculiar trade which we shall examine in a moment.

3 Whereupon the merchants of Bombay complained against being forced to partake in this embargo, and wrote to the Lords Commissioners for India that 'for the successful prosecution of this trade (from Bombay] it is indispensably necessary that those concerned in it should not be subject to such interference or impediment as is calculated not 1 3 See Chapter IV below. H. ofC. 282-3. a See Chapters I, VI. 1 The private merchants, having forced the opening of the India trade in 1 8 13, were restive under the restrictions still imposed on the China trade.

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