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By A. Munro-Kua

Socio-economic and political matters are handled selectively inside a chronological historic framework, overlaying the dramatic colonial impression of 1940-60 until eventually the current day. The nation is tested from the viewpoint of social type in addition to communalism, to give an explanation for the dominance of the ruling coalition over the 37 years given that independence. the writer argues that authoritarian-populism is the concept most closely fits the plain paradox of an everlasting regime through the poll field, and the wide regulations at the scope of democracy, really in the course of the repressive gear of detention with no trial. The underlying subject is a critique and clarification of Malaysia's human rights list.

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Extra resources for Authoritarian Populism in Malaysia

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A comprador class emerged to serve the British Agency Houses in their trade in Indian cloth, opium, China tea and porcelain. Revenue was obtained from opium and gambling taxation. However, Malay resistance to any further intervention delayed the imposition of direct rule until 1874. 7 Chinese tin mining 'Kapitans' were the suppliers of labour from China, through the clans and secret societies. The Kapitans were also entrepreneurs, often powerful enough to influence the periodic inter-factional conflicts between the Malay chiefs.

While the newly independent state contained institutions of parliamentary democracy, a number of Emergency laws and institutions were retained. Even though the country became formally independent in 1957, the Emergency officially ended only in 1960. An examination of the development of ideological apparatuses is also important, for it sheds light on the application of the security laws. National Security was given top priority and was to form a central tenet of the State ideology during the Sixties.

49 Islam was declared the official state religion on 31 August I 957. But when the Razak Report of 1957 recommended that English and Malay were to be taught in all schools, nationwide strikes and riots occurred in Chinese schools throughout the country. 50 The 'Merdeka' (Independence) Constitution in effect institutionalized communalism as the state ideology, apparently reflecting the balance of forces within the Alliance. However, despite the persistence of interfactional struggle within the Alliance it was clear from the start that UMNO would be the dominant partner in the ruling coalition.

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