By Francesco Paolo Rossini M.D. (auth.)
by Mario Banche, M.D. IX The neologism "coloscopy" (colonscopy, colonoscopy) is the most recent addition to the vocabulary of endoscopy of the big gut. simply because the time period "duodenoscopy" was once in endoscopy of the higher digestive tract many years in the past. With the arrival of the coloscope it's now attainable to ascertain the big bowel extra greatly and successfully than used to be previously attainable with using its inflexible forerunner, the rectosigmoidoscope. The earliest rectoscopes, eleven endoscopes" brought in the course of the nineteenth century via Segales and Desormeaux (1826, 1853), have been conceived for lots of uses-inspection of the urethra, bladder, uterus, rectum. Successive advancements finally resulted in the development of an device designed completely for endoscopy of the rectum and sigmoid colon (Bensaude, 1907). Over the next years the rectoscope underwent no enormous swap and hence an considerable and homogeneous literature gathered within which the on hand tools and their use have been defined whereas the endoscopic pathologic nosography and corresponding endoscopic images of the rectum and sigmoid colon have been codified, illustrated first via uncomplicated sketches and later through nonetheless and movement images. The literature comprises many fantastic guides, a few in monograph form.
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104. Fig. 106. Fig. 105. Terminal ileum. Fig. 106. Ileum.
The ascending colon is larger than the left colon and is lined with a mucosa forming semicircular folds. The cecum has the appearance of a large cul-de-sac, crossed by large folds which divide it up into pouch-like recesses. The cecum contains the orifice of the appendix. It is round-shaped and hidden under a mucosal fold. The orifice of the ileum is situated on the wall of the ascending colon, about 10 cm from the cecum. 5 to 3 cm in diameter. It is situated on the tip of a conical protrusion which projects about 1 cm into the large bowel.
Characteristic pagoda-like arrangement of the folds. Fig. 90. Ascending colon. Without excessive distension the bowel has an almost triangular form . Fig. 89. Persistent contracture of the hepatic flexure. Fig. 91. Same portion of the ascending colon after insufflation. The bowel wall is distended. The folds are semicircular. Fig. 92. Retrograde view of the ascending colon. The tip of the fibrescope inspects the lumen from down up. 53 Fig. 93. Endoscopic view of the ascending colon. The folds are semicircular.