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23b at the poles and the equator. Due to the action of the Coriolis force the heat flows towards the pole in the convection zone and towards the equator in the lower overshoot region. The key question regarding the importance of the anisotropic heat transport has been attacked by Rempel (2005, 2011). He showed that it is also possible to produce the typical large-scale flow pattern in the solar convection zone without anisotropic heat transport. In this approach the warm poles which are necessary to violate the Taylor–Proudman theorem are produced by the inclusion of a stably stratified sublayer (‘tachocline’) below the convection zone with low viscosity and a rigid-rotation lower boundary condition.

It shows superrotation while the polar axis rotates almost rigidly (b). Reproduced with permission © ESO. 32 but for the meridional flow of the northern hemisphere (a). The flow is of solar-type, that is it goes polewards at the top (solid line) of the convection zone and equatorwards at its bottom (dashed) (b). Reproduced with permission © ESO. due to the Taylor–Proudman theorem (dΩ /dz ' 0) has been called the Taylornumber puzzle. Note that the negative shear along the polar axis which is typical for the solar rotation law and which is also produced by baroclinic flows (cf.

These fluxes increase with inhomogeneity of rotation. 11), which produces this inhomogeneity, depends on rotation rate but not on the rotational shear. A steady state of differential rotation can to some extent be understood as a balance between the Λ effect and eddy viscosities. This picture is, however, very approximate and not complete because it does not allow for the angular momentum transport by the meridional flow. 4 The Meridional Flow To understand the differential rotation induced by the meridional flow alone, we consider a simplified problem where the meridional flow is supposed as given, the eddy viscosity ν T is isotropic, and the Λ effect in the turbulence-induced Reynolds stress is ignored (see Balbus, Latter, and Weiss, 2012).

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