Download Architecture of Italy (Reference Guides to National by Jean Castex PDF

By Jean Castex

Covering all areas of Italy—from Turin's Palace of work in northern Italy to the Monreale Cathedral and Cloister in Sicily—and all classes of Italian architecture—from the first-century Colosseum in Rome to the Casa Rustica residences inbuilt Milan within the 1930s—this quantity examines over 70 of Italy's most crucial architectural landmarks. Writing in an authoritative but enticing sort, Jean Castex, professor of architectural historical past on the Versailles university of structure, describes the beneficial properties, services, and ancient significance of every constitution. along with idetifying position, variety, architects, and sessions of preliminary building and significant renovations, the cross-referenced and illustrated entries additionally spotlight architectural and ancient phrases defined within the Glossay and finish with an invaluable directory of additional info assets. the amount additionally deals ready-reference lists of entries through position, architectural sort, and period of time, in addition to a common bibliography, an in depth topic index, and a entire introductory assessment of Italian architecture.

Entries disguise significant architectural constructions in addition to smaller websites, together with every thing from the well known dome of St. Peter's on the Vatican to the Fiat Lingotto Plant in Turin. perfect for school and highschool scholars, in addition to for normal readers, this entire examine the structure of Italy is an essential addition to each architectural reference collection.

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Vaults were added in Modena much later in 1437–1446. The centralized type of plan flourished in baptisteries. In Florence, the baptistery of San Giovanni (consecrated in 1059) is a strict octagonal building, whose foundations were erected on a Late Antique building. The great circular Pisa Baptistry (1152–1265) next to the cathedral supports a conical central vault with a double ring of galleries. With the addition of the great Pisan belfry (the Leaning Tower), the group of three buildings in Pisa revived the classical theme of the Roman Forum in a sort of sanctified landscape, which retains its religious consecration.

In the Palatine Chapel, stalactite ceilings are paired with Byzantine mosaics in a spatial arrangement typical of the Normans. Monreale Cathedral, in the vicinity of Palermo (1174–1182), must be the “climax of Sicilian Romanesque architecture” (Conant 1974, 359), but here the styles are in pure juxtaposition, which is successful for the decoration but contributes little to structural innovation. All the architecture of Sicily bathes in the brilliant sunshine, “glowing with warmth” (Conant 1974, 354).

Rome’s major adversary, however, was Carthage, not the mainland Greek city-states, which had only tenuous ties with the Greek cities in Italy. Carthage’s expansion threatened Rome. It had subjugated much of North Africa by the third century bce; and parts of Sicily, Sardinia, and Spain were Carthaginian dependencies. Rome fought three wars, known as the Punic Wars, against Carthage, the first lasting from 265 to 241 bce, the second from 218 to 201 bce, and the third, which resulted in the final destruction of Carthage, from 149 to 146 bce.

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