By B.B.S. Singhal †, R.P. Gupta
Hydrogeology is a topical and turning out to be topic because the earth's water assets develop into scarcer and extra weak. greater than half the skin zone of continents is roofed with challenging rocks of low permiability. This ebook bargains comprehensively with the elemental rules for figuring out the hydrogeological features of rocks, in addition to exploration concepts and evaluation. It additionally offers extensive dialogue on structural mapping, distant sensing, geophysical exploration, GIS, groundwater stream modelling and contaminant shipping, box hydraulic trying out together with tracer checks, groundwater caliber, geothermal reservoirs, controlled aquifer recharge, and assets evaluation and administration. Hydrogeological features of varied lithology teams, together with crystalline rocks, volcanic rocks, carbonate rocks and clastic formations were handled individually, utilizing and discussing examples from around the world. it will likely be a useful textual content booklet cum reference resource for postgraduate scholars, researchers, exploration scientists and engineers engaged within the box of groundwater improvement in fractured rocks. utilized Hydrogeology of Fractured Rocks - moment version is carefully revised and prolonged with a brand new bankruptcy, up to date sections, many new examples, and elevated and up-to-date references. viewers: This booklet could be a useful textual content booklet cum reference resource for postgraduate scholars, researchers, exploration scientists and engineers engaged within the box of groundwater improvement in fractured rocks. From the experiences of the former version: "In all, utilized Hydrogeology of Fractured Rocks is helping fill the necessity for a primer in fractured rocks hydrology. it's going to turn out relatively important to specialists faced with fractured rock structures, and are wanting a few pointers." (M. Becker, Hydrogeology magazine (2002) 10: 600)
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Additional info for Applied Hydrogeology of Fractured Rocks: Second Edition
Some terms are used for specific metamorphic rocks. Thus, the term slaty cleavage is used for rock cleavage in slates; schistosity is used for schists and gneissosity for gneisses. Foliation planes may or may not be parallel to bedding. Foliation that is parallel to the bedding is often referred to as bedding foliation. Fracture cleavage is produced by closely-spaced jointing. In many schistose rocks, shear cleavages are developed due to closely spaced shearslip planes, known as slip-cleavage. In a folded region, the foliation often developed parallel to the axial plane of folds is called the axial plane foliation.
Regional field investigations Geological mapping Structural mapping Fracture characterization Geophysical exploration Exploratory drilling and well logging Preliminary water level and quality assessment Detailed field investigations Sinking of observation and production wells Pumping and other hydraulic tests Tracer injection test Water level monitoring Water quality Resources assessment and management Water budgetting Aquifer modelling GIS analysis Resources planning and management Fig. 9 Steps in exploration, assessment and management of groundwater resources Summary In the earlier part of the human civilisation, most of the groundwater development was from porous alluvial formations located adjacent to source of recharge.
The net effect of wall coatings and infillings is a reduced aperture. 3). The 2D methods are based on observations made at rock surface, at surface or subsurface levels. 28). These methods give an idea of the hydrogeological properties at and around the site of observation. The 3D methods are aimed at gathering information on the bulk volumetric properties involving inner structure of the fractured rock mass. There can be direct or indirect 3D methods. Brief descriptions of the various 2D and 3D methods are given below.