By Seelye Martin
Totally up-to-date, with major new insurance of advances in satellite tv for pc oceanography and effects from new satellite tv for pc missions, the second one variation of this well known textbook introduces scholars to how distant sensing works, tips on how to comprehend observations from Earth-observing platforms, and the observations' value to actual and organic oceanography. It presents complete motives of radiative move, ocean floor homes, satellite tv for pc orbits, tools and strategies, obvious distant sensing of biogeochemical houses, infrared and microwave retrieval of sea floor temperature, sea floor salinity retrieval, passive microwave measurements, scatterometer wind retrieval, altimetry and SAR. additionally incorporated are descriptions of the net records the place info could be got, and readers can receive on-line instruments for operating with the knowledge - allowing hands-on engagement with real-world observations. this is often an excellent textbook for graduate and complicated undergraduate scholars in oceanography, distant sensing and environmental technological know-how, and a pragmatic source for researchers and execs operating with oceanographic satellite tv for pc facts.
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Additional info for An Introduction to Ocean Remote Sensing
And along-scan is in the scan direction of the sensor on the surface. Examples of whiskbroom instruments include the AVHRR and the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-View Sensor (SeaWiFS). 9 shows a schematic drawing of the surface scanning pattern and operation of idealized single and multichannel instruments. 198mm CUUK2533-01 CUUK2533/Martin ISBN: 978 1 107 01938 6 18 November 25, 2013 Background bands. The instrument operates as follows. For each wavelength band, the detectors are focused on a mirror mounted at a 45° angle to its axis of rotation that rotates uniformly around 360°.
At off-nadir view angles, θ and θV differ because of the Earth’s curvature. The figure shows that the solar zenith angle θS is also measured relative to the local vertical. Given that oceanic surface properties are functions of the viewing zenith angle θ, the following chapters primarily use θ to describe the operation of the satellite instruments (View angles, 2013). 8). For this case, the instrument solid angle = A/r 2 is a constant, where A is the surface area observed by the telescope at nadir and r is the distance from the instrument to the surface.
The advantages of the pushbroom scanner are longer dwell time and better spatial resolution; the disadvantages are that the individual sensors can lose their calibrations relative to one another, making the instrument less accurate. Also, given that the pushbroom scanner requires one sensor for each surface pixel, the pushbroom instruments generally have a narrower swath width than the whiskbrooms, because otherwise the large number of required sensors would generate an unwieldy instrument. 4 Hybrid cross-track scanner Third, the need for wide-swath, high-spatial-resolution scanners led to the development of hybrid cross-track scanners that combine the properties of the whisk and pushbroom scanners.