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By Christos Tsagalis

The prior few many years have visible the improvement of latest serious equipment with which the poetic and rhetorical dimensions of historical Greek texts might be evaluated. during this quantity, a global team of unusual students comes jointly to ascertain how a variety of historical texts in numerous genres have been in a position to assert their authority and claims to fact, usually alluding to each other in sophisticated methods as they tried to venture their very own superiority. a sequence of illuminating new readings is available of either specific passages and entire works within the gentle of those new serious advances

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10 Again extensively discussed by Pucci (1987) 165-172. 42 Egbert J. Bakker that are collected after each day’s battle. The gastēr and its continuous physical needs are bluntly stressed, and the heroic code is reduced to what is for us an athlete’s diet. 11 The gastēr, then, is more than a beggarly disguise for the hero in a transitional phase between folktale and epic. Odysseus in the Iliad, who is in the middle of the epic arena, is shown to stand beside mainstream heroism. 12 Odysseus also counters standard heroic psychology, which takes thumos for granted.

This is not a concept typifying only beggars; it lies at the root of risky voyages, perhaps even of navigation itself. And as Pucci notes (1987, 176), such dangerous expeditions with hostile intent may include even the Trojan expedition itself. The Odyssey seems to deconstruct mechanisms and assumptions of the Iliad: what in heroic poetry is ascribed to a yearning for kleos is shown in the Odyssey from a reverse angleʊthe urge to satisfy greed or need. 13 And in one important passage the human gastēr is explicitly linked with “memory”, in the form of the aorist verb mnēsasthai, whose root mnē- is an ablaut variant of men-/mon-: ἀλλ᾿ ἐμὲ μὲν δορπῆσαι ἐάσατε κηδόμενόν περ· οὐ γάρ τι στυγερῇ ἐπὶ γαστέρι κύντερον ἄλλο ἔπλετο, ἥ τ᾿ ἐκέλευσεν ἕο μνήσασθαι ἀνάγκῃ καὶ μάλα τειρόμενον καὶ ἐνὶ φρεσὶ πένθος ἔχοντα, ὡς καὶ ἐγὼ πένθος μὲν ἔχω φρεσίν, ἡ δὲ μάλ᾿ αἰεὶ ἐσθέμεναι κέλεται καὶ πινέμεν, ἐκ δέ με πάντων 13 This section on memory in Homer extensively draws on Bakker (2008).

In a probable comparison with those who, by their lack of proper knowledge, are incapable of grasping the meaning of the cosmo-theogonical poem, and through a strong enunciative intervention, those who carry out civic rites by listening to spoken words without understanding them, are both denounced. ):41 38 The analogies between the Derveni commentator’s etymologizing procedures and those listed by Plato in the Cratylus have been revealed notably by Kahn (1997) 60-63. Regarding the combination of physical explanations and references to divine figures, see Laks (1997) as well as Betegh (2004) 224-227.

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