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Heilmeier, G. , and Prager, H. , Low-noise tunnel-diode downconverter having conversion gain. Proc. IRE 48, 854-858 (1960). 60. Chang, K. K. N. " Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey 1964. 61. Follmer, W. C. Low-frequency noise in backward diodes. Proc. IRE44,1939-1940 (1961). TUNNEL DIODE DEVICES 41 62. Eng, S. T. Low-noise properties of microwave backward diodes. IRE, Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 9, 414-425 (1961). 63. Burrus, C. A. Backward diodes for low-level millimeter, wave detection.

The pn junction whose contacts are labeled emitter and base serve the function of periodically injecting charge into the lightly doped 7r-type "drift region" between the base and collector contacts. These drifting carriers then absorb BASE COLLECTOR EMITTER BP " 7Γ P J HOLES URGED ♦ TO LEFT i H O L E S URGEO TO RIGHT FIG. 3. Idealized one-dimensional current flow transistor model. energy from the dc field applied between the base and collector and owing to their variations with time convert it into RF energy.

STATE OF THE ART A plot of the powers attained at various frequencies from individual transistors (in the sense previously described) is presented in Fig. 2. The data are also tabulated in Table I. 5 40 Efficiency (%) 30 — 30 — — 75 Material Operation Reference Si Si Si Si Si Si Si Pulse CW [1] [2] [3] [3] [4] [5] [6] cw CW cw cw cw squared plot is included for reference and is observed to be a reasonable predictor of power-frequency performance. Its significance will be discussed in another section.

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