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Extra info for A Short History of Europe: From the Greeks and Romans to the Present Day

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But when Attila died his sons quarrelled over the inheritance; the Germanic tribes in his empire revolted and the Hunnic Empire dissolved, the remnants merging with Ugrian tribes to form part of a Bulgar state in southern Russia, their end unlamented. In the meantime, the eastern Empire had survived with a certain confidence. First of all, it was better placed strategically compared to the west. Once the line of the Danube had been broken, the invaders would have to face the Bosphorus and one of the largest and best fortified cities of the Empire, Byzantium, later named Constantinople after the Emperor Constantine who, as sole ruler, moved the capital of the Empire there in 330.

He Christianiry 43 believed that it was just as important to achieve and maintain a uniform tradition as it was to decide what the correct tradition was. Thus whatever church leaders agreed upon in an ecumenical council was immediately pronounced as law by the Emperor. Those who dissented were labelled as 'schismatics', deprived of office and banished. In practice, in the East, the Emperor was considered the living image of Christ, and he was head of the Church. Constantine was seen as God's chosen deputy.

Starting out on the northern Rhine, they entered northern France, establishing a kingdom between the Somme and the Loire under their most famous King, Clovis, and then expanded south. In 507 Clovis defeated the Visigoths at Vouille and thus took all western and south-western France. He made Paris his capital. Clovis died in 511 but his successors defeated the Burgundians and forced the Ostrogoths to surrender southern France as well, so that by the first quarter of the seventh century the country, with the exception of the Celtic kingdom of 32 A Short History of Europe Brittany founded by migrants fleeing England from Anglo-Saxon pressure, was united under the Merovingian dynasty.

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