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By Frank McLynn

If no longer for the occasions of 1759, the complete background of the realm may were varied. known as the "Year of Victories," 1759 used to be the fourth yr of the Seven Years, or the French-and-Indian conflict and defeat of the French not just lead the way for the worldwide hegemony of the English language but additionally made the emergence of the USA attainable. Guiding us via England's conquests (and usually tremendous slender victories) in India, North the US, and the Caribbean, Frank McLynn (Wagons West) controversially means that the delivery of the good British Empire used to be extra because of the success than of rigorous making plans. besides stirring depictions of the 2 maximum battles of 1759, Quebec and Quiberon, McLynn comprises anecdotes of the highbrow and cultural leaders of the day—Swedenborg, Hume, Voltaire—and interweaves fundamental assets, starting from fabric within the Vatican information to oral histories of local americans, in a super chronicle of a pivotal 12 months in international history.

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The Plains of Abraham 10. Rogers’ Rangers 11. Quiberon Bay Conclusion Sources Bibliography Index TIMELINE 12 December 1758–16 February 1759: French besiege Madras 20 December 1758: Bougainville arrives at Versailles on mission for Montcalm 13 January 1759: British fleet arrives at Martinique for intended conquest of the island 5 February: Choiseul interviews Bonnie Prince Charlie in Paris 13 April: French defeat Prince Ferdinand of Brunswick at Bergen near Frankfurt 1 May: British complete conquest of Gaudeloupe 13 May: Bougainville arrives in Quebec 4 June: Wolfe leaves Louisbourg for the St Lawrence river 27 June: General Amherst takes Fort Ticonderoga 23 July: Frederick the Great fights the battle of Kay in Brandenburg, Poland 25 July: British capture Fort Niagara 31 July: French repulse Wolfe and the British at Montmorenci Gorge, Quebec 1 August: Ferdinand of Brunswick and the British under Lord Sackville defeat the French at Minden, West Germany 12 August: Frederick the Great defeated at Kunersdorf, East Prussia by the Austrians and Russians 18–19 August: Admiral Boscawen destroys French Mediterranean fleet at Lagos, Portugal 13 September: Wolfe defeats Montcalm on the Plains of Abraham 5 October: Robert Rogers and his Rangers destroy the Abenaki village of St Francis (Quebec Province) 20 November: Admiral Hawke defeats the French Brest fleet at Quiberon, Britanny 20–21 November: Frederick the Great fights battle of Maxden, near Dresden, Saxony Outstanding literary productions of 1759: Candide by Voltaire Rasselas by Samuel Johnson The Theory of Moral Sentiments by Adam Smith Gl’Innamorati by Carlo Goldoni The Sublime and the Beautiful (2nd ed) by Edmund Burke The Life and Opinions of Tristram Shandy (Part One) by Laurence Sterne ILLUSTRATIONS 1.

Yet this was only a relative development. Opposition to forced enlistment and press gangs was acute and violent, and juries tended to be sympathetic to ‘lawbreakers’ in this context where the law itself seemed despotic. Local communities often turned out in force to give severe beatings to press gangs and there was loss of life on both sides in such encounters. A typical case from the north of England in March 1759 saw a barber named William Moffat first involved in such an affray, then arrested, then escaped, finally to be captured at Whitehaven and lodged in Carlisle jail before at last being acquitted at Durham Assizes.

Among the births were those of the poet Robert Burns, the writer Mary Wollstonecraft, William Pitt the Younger, the French revolutionary Georges Jacques Danton, Napoleon’s future police chief Joseph Fouché, the poet Johann von Schiller and the philanthropist William Wilberforce. Sadly, we must leave all these and other delightful byways to concentrate on our main theme: how Britain came to dominate the world. INTRODUCTION The Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle, which ended eight years of fighting in the War of Austrian Succession (1740–48), was deeply unpopular on all sides (‘as stupid as the peace’ became a French proverb) and everyone was aware that it provided a mere breathing space until the great powers clashed again.

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